See Rock City

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Friday, August 30, 2013

How To Give Your Kid The Best First Day Of School Ever

The night before school starts, read a book together that will calm your kid’s nerves.

The night before school starts, read a book together that will calm your kid's nerves.
Wimberly Worried is the perfect back-to-school read. Here’s a solid list of other great first-day books.

If you’re cool with them wearing nail polish, give your child a school-themed manicure.

If you're cool with them wearing nail polish, give your child a school-themed manicure.
Directions here.

Play your child’s favorite song to lure them out of bed and then let a miniature dance party ensue.

How To Give Your Kid The Best First Day Of School Ever
Whether your kid has been counting down the days until they return to school or totally dreading it, there’s no doubt that listening to their favorite song will give them some incentive to wake up.
Bonus: Here are some helpful tips on readjusting your child’s sleep schedule before school starts.

Get them psyched to get dressed by giving them a new pair of socks.

Get them psyched to get dressed by giving them a new pair of socks.
Snazzy! Available here.

Serve up a special breakfast.

Like these owl-shaped pancakes…

Like these owl-shaped pancakes...
Get the recipe here.

Or, if you don’t feel like getting up early to cook, have a mini smoothie prepping party with your kids the night before.

Or, if you don't feel like getting up early to cook, have a mini smoothie prepping party with your kids the night before.
Let them pick out a few ingredients, pack them in plastic bags, place in the freezer, and blend the following morning.

Here are eight easy three-ingredient smoothie recipes.

Sneak a small gift into your kid’s backpack.

Sneak a small gift into your kid's backpack.
Nothing too extravagant or distracting. Like, maybe these Colored Smencils?
“Colored Smencils are made from recycled newspapers and are infused with natural scents that waft up gently as you use them.”

Available here.
Or a mini gnome-covered notebook.
Available , $3.30.

Snap a quick photo before heading off to school.

Snap a quick photo before heading off to school.

Since you’ve already got the chalk out, you might as well draw a hopscotch path leading out from the front door to the car.

Since you've already got the chalk out, you might as well draw a hopscotch path leading out from the front door to the car.
Or, at least to the end of the driveway or sidewalk, if they’re taking the bus.

Pack an unconventional note in their lunch bag.

Pack an unconventional note in their lunch bag.
Turns out, if you scratch a message on a banana, it stays mostly invisible for an hour or so and then appears.
Instructions here.

Or make some personalized fruit labels.

Or make some personalized fruit labels.
A slightly more discreet way to show your love.
Simply write on blank stationary labels with some fine-tip markers.

If your child prefers apple slices, use this handy trick to keep them from browning.

If your child prefers apple slices, use this handy trick to keep them from browning.
Full directions here.

Slip a doughnut into their lunch.

Slip a doughnut into their lunch.
OK, not an actual doughnut, but a special PB&J sandwich garnished with sprinkles.
Learn how to make it here.

Hang up a celebratory banner.

Hang up a celebratory banner.
Download this printable one for free here.

After school, create a time capsule.

After school, create a time capsule.
You and your child can open it up on the last day of school to see how they’ve changed!
Instructions here.

Source: Buzzfeed

A Killer In Your Refrigerator

Julie Hunter Jack


In October of 2001, my sister started getting very sick She had stomach spasms and she was having a hard time getting around. Walking was a major chore. It took everything she had just to get out of bed; she was in so much pain.

By March 2002, she had undergone several tissue and muscle biopsies and was on 24 various prescription medications. The doctors could not determine what was wrong with her. She was in so much pain, and so sick she just knew she was dying.

She put her house, bank accounts, life insurance, etc., in her oldest daughter's name, and made sure that her younger children were to be taken care of.

She also wanted her last hooray, so she planned a trip to Florida (basically in a wheelchair) for March 22nd.

On March 19, I called her to ask how her most recent tests went, and she said they didn't find anything on the test, but they believe she had MS.

I recalled an article a friend of mine e-mailed to me and I asked my sister if she drank diet soda? She told me that she did. As a matter of fact, she was getting ready to crack one open that moment.

I told her not to open it, and to stop drinking the diet soda! I e-mailed her an article my friend, a lawyer, had sent. My sister called me within 32 hours after our phone conversation and told me she had stopped drinking the diet soda AND she could walk! The muscle spasms went away. She said she didn't feel 100% but, she sure felt a lot better.

She told me she was going to her doctor with this article and would call me when she got home.

Well, she called me, and said her doctor was amazed! He is going to call all of his MS patients to find out if they consumed artificial sweeteners of any kind. In a nutshell, she was being poisoned by the Aspartame in the diet soda.. and literally dying a slow and miserable death

When she got to Florida March 22, all she had to take was one pill, and that was a pill for the Aspartame poisoning! She is well on her way to a complete recovery. And she is walking! No wheelchair! This article saved her life.If it says 'SUGAR FREE' on the label; DO NOT EVEN THINK ABOUT IT!I have spent several days lecturing at the WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE on 'ASPARTAME,' marketed as'Nutra Sweet,' 'Equal,' and 'Spoonful.'In the keynote address by the EPA, it was announced that in the United States in 2001 there is an epidemic of multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus. It was difficult to determine exactly what toxin was causing this to be rampant. I stood up and said that I was there to lecture on exactly that subject.

I will explain why Aspartame is so dangerous: When the temperature of this sweetener exceeds 86 degrees F, the wood alcohol in ASPARTAME converts to formaldehyde and then to formic acid, which in turn causes metabolic acidosis. Formic acid is the poison found in the sting of fire ants. The methanol toxicity mimics, among other conditions, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus.

Many people were being diagnosed in error. Although multiple sclerosis is not a death sentence, Methanol toxicity is!

Systemic lupus has become almost as rampant as multiple sclerosis, especially with Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi drinkers.The victim usually does not know that the Aspartame is the culprit. He or she continues its use; irritating the lupus to such a degree that it may become a life-threatening condition. We have seen patients with systemic lupus become asymptotic, once taken off diet sodas.

In cases of those diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis, most of the symptoms disappear. We've seen many cases where vision loss returned and hearing loss improved markedly.

This also applies to cases of tinnitus and fibromyalgia. During a lecture, I said, 'If you are using ASPARTAME (Nutra Sweet, Equal, Spoonful, etc) and you suffer from fibromyalgia symptoms, spasms, shooting, pains, numbness in your legs,
Joint pain,
Unexplainable depression, anxiety attacks, slurred speech, blurred vision, or memory loss you probably have ASPARTAME poisoning!' People were jumping up during the lecture saying,'I have some of these symptoms. Is it reversible?'


STOP drinking diet sodas and be alert for Aspartame on food labels! Many products are fortified with it! This is a serious problem. Dr. Espart (one of my speakers) remarked that so many people seem to be symptomatic for MS and during his recent visit to a hospice; a nurse stated that six of her friends, who were heavy Diet Coke addicts, had all been diagnosed with MS. This is beyond coincidence!

Diet soda is NOT a diet product! It is a chemically altered, multiple SODIUM (salt) and ASPARTAME containing product that actually makes you crave carbohydrates.

It is far more likely to make you GAIN weight!

These products also contain formaldehyde, which stores in the fat cells, particularly in the hips and thighs. Formaldehyde is an absolute toxin and is used primarily to preserve 'tissue specimens.'

Many products we use every day contain this chemical but we SHOULD NOT store it IN our body!

Dr. H. J. Roberts stated in his lectures that once free of the 'diet products' and with no significant increase in exercise; his patients lost an average of 19 pounds over a trial period.Aspartame is especially dangerous for diabetics. We found that some physicians, who believed that they had a patient with retinopathy, in fact, had symptoms caused by Aspartame. The Aspartame drives the blood sugar out of control. Thus diabetics may suffer acute memory loss due to the fact that aspartic acid and phenylalanine are NEUROTOXIC when taken without the other amino acids necessary for a good balance.

Treating diabetes is all about BALANCE.. Especially with diabetics, the Aspartame passes the blood/brain barrier and it then deteriorates the neurons of the brain; causing various levels of brain damage, Seizures, Depression, Manic depression, Panic attacks, Uncontrollable anger and rage.Consumption of Aspartame causes these same symptoms in non-diabetics as well. Documentation and observation also reveal that thousands of children diagnosed with ADD and ADHD have had complete turnarounds in their behavior when these chemicals have been removed from their diet.

So called 'behavior modification prescription drugs' (Ritalin and others) are no longer needed.Truth be told, they were never NEEDED in the first place!Most of these children were being 'poisoned' on a daily basis with the very foods that were 'better for them than sugar.'It is also suspected that the Aspartame in thousands of pallets of diet Coke and diet Pepsi consumed by men and women fighting in the Gulf War, may be partially to blame for the well-known Gulf War Syndrome.

Dr. Roberts warns that it can cause birth defects, i.e. mental retardation, if taken at the time of conception and during early pregnancy. Children are especially at risk for neurological disorders and should NEVER be given artificial sweeteners.

There are many different case histories to relate of children suffering grand mal seizures and other neurological disturbances talking about a plague of neurological diseases directly caused by the use of this deadly poison.'

Herein lies the problem: There were Congressional Hearings when Aspartame was included in 100 different products and strong objection was made concerning its use. Since this initial hearing, there have been two subsequent hearings, and still nothing has been done. The drug and chemical lobbies have very deep pockets.

Sadly, MONSANTO'S patent on Aspartame has EXPIRED! There are now over 5,000 products on the market that contain this deadly chemical and there will be thousands more introduced. Everybody wants a 'piece of the Aspartame pie.'I assure you that MONSANTO, the creator of Aspartame, knows how deadly it is.

And isn't it ironic that MONSANTO funds, among others, the American Diabetes Association, the American Dietetic Association and the Conference of the American College of Physicians?

This has been recently exposed in the New York Times. These [organizations] cannot criticize any additives or convey their link to MONSANTO because they take money from the food industry and are required to endorse their products.Senator Howard Metzenbaum wrote and presented a bill that would require label warnings on products containing Aspartame, especially regarding pregnant women, children and infants.

The bill would also institute independent studies on the known dangers and the problems existing in the general population regarding seizures, changes in brain chemistry, neurological changes and behavioural symptoms.

The bill was killed.It is known that the powerful drug and chemical lobbies are responsible for this, letting loose the hounds of disease and death on an unsuspecting and uninformed public. Well, you're informed now!
Source: Email

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Do It Yourself Microwave Popcorn


1/4 cup unpopped popcorn kernels (makes ~4 ½ cups popped)
1 small paper lunch bag
1 tablespoon melted butter


Add the kernels to the paper bag (if you don’t have a paper sack use a microwave safe bowl with a plate place on top). Fold the top of the bag over several times. (Do not use paper clips, staples or anything metal in the microwave.)
Place the bag in the microwave and set the timer to 3 minutes. Microwave the popcorn until you hear the sound of the popping stop or the popping slows down (Mine cooked in 2:43). This tells you the popcorn is done popping, and it will stop it from overcooking and burning.
Remove the popcorn (from the microwave and pour into a large bowl. Drizzle with melted butter and sprinkle with sea salt, premade popcorn seasoning ( I used kettle corn). Toss to coat and serve immediately.

Here are more ideas if you want to add flavor to your homemade popcorn:

• Italian herb and cheese popcorn — garlic salt, dried Italian herbs and fresh grated Parmesan cheese.
• Fiery spice popcorn — sea salt, cayenne pepper, melted butter and a dash of hot sauce.
• Something sweet popcorn — brown sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg and a pinch of sea salt.
• Nutty chocolate drizzle popcorn — drizzle with melted chocolate and toss in peanuts, cashews or almonds.

Healthier low-no salt options:

Italian seasonings (oregano, fennel, red pepper flakes, and basil) with olive oil
• Curry powder (red or yellow) with coconut oil
• Lemon-pepper and butter
• Garlic powder and butter or olive oil
• Rosemary, thyme, and sage with olive oil
• Jerk seasoning and coconut oil
• Old Bay seasoning, dried lemon zest, and butter
• Tarragon, dried mustard and butter
• Smoked paprika and olive oil
• Five spice powder and coconut oil
• Buffalo: Mix equal parts hot sauce and butter, then sprinkle on your popcorn. This will make it a bit soggy and messy, but it's so good. Sprinkle on nutritional yeast (30 cals per tablespoon) for more flavor

Source: GheartandSoulFood

Only In America

After I retired, my wife insisted that I accompany her on her trips to Walmart. Unfortunately, like most men, I found shopping boring and preferred to get in and get out. Equally unfortunate, my wife is like most women - she loves to browse.

Yesterday my dear wife received the following letter from the local Walmart

Dear Mrs. Woolf,

Over the past six months, your husband has caused quite a commotion in our store. We cannot tolerate this behavior and have been forced to ban both of you from the store. Our complaints against your husband, Mr. Woolf, are listed below and are "documented by our video surveillance cameras":

1. June 15: He took 24 boxes of condoms and randomly put them in other people's carts when they weren't looking.

2. July 2: Set all the alarm clocks in Housewares to go off at 5-minute intervals.

3. July 7: He made a trail of tomato juice on the floor leading to the women's restroom.

4. July 19: Walked up to an employee and told her in an official voice, 'Code 3 in Housewares. Get on it right away'. This caused the employee to leave her assigned station and receive a reprimand from her Supervisor that in turn resulted in management getting involved causing management to lose time and costing the company money.

5. August 4: Went to the Service Desk and tried to reserve a bag of chips.

6. August 14: Moved a 'CAUTION - WET FLOOR' sign to a carpeted area.

7. August 15: Set up a tent in the camping department and told the children shoppers they could come in if they would bring pillows and blankets from the bedding department - to which twenty children

8. August 23: When a clerk asked if they could help him he began crying and screamed, 'Why can't you people just leave me alone?' Emergency Medics were called.

9. September 4: Looked right into the security camera and used it as a mirror while he picked his nose.

10. September 10: While handling guns in the Sports department, he asked the clerk where the antidepressants were.

11. October 3: Darted around the Store suspiciously while loudly humming the ' Mission Impossible' theme.

12. October 6: In the auto department, he practiced his 'Madonna look' by using different sizes of funnels.

13. October 18: Hid in a clothing rack and when people browsed through, yelled 'PICK ME! PICK ME!'

14. October 22: When an announcement came over the loud speaker, he assumed the fetal position and screamed 'OH NO! IT'S THOSE VOICES AGAIN!

15. Took a box of condoms to the checkout clerk and asked where the fitting room was.

And last, but not least:

16. October 23: Went into a fitting room, shut the door, waited awhile, and then yelled very loudly, 'Hey! There's no toilet paper in.' One of the Staff passed out.

Source: Internet


Don't worry the Subject "Tenjooberrymuds" will make sense after you read the following.

I was recently in Miami and decided to learn the Spanish language, so I could understand the check-outs at McDonalds.

My next move is to learn Indian, so I can understand my doctors and the person that answers the phone when I have a warranty problem
Yep, by the time I read this, I was able to understand the 1st line .

"TENJOOBERRYMUDS"... In order to continue getting-by in America (our home land), we all need to learn the NEW English language! Practice by reading the following conversation until you are able to understand the term "TENJOOBERRYMUDS".

With a little patience, you'll be able to fit right in.
Now, here goes...

The following is a telephone exchange between maybe you as a hotel guest and room-service somewhere in the good old U S A today.......

Room Service : "Morrin. Roon sirbees."

Guest : "Sorry, I thought I dialed room-service."

Room Service: " Rye . Roon sirbees...morrin! Joowish to oddor sunteen???"

Guest: "Uh..... Yes, I'd like to order bacon and eggs.."

Room Service: "Ow July den?"

Guest: ".....What??"

Room Service: "Ow July den?!?... Pryed, boyud, poochd?"

Guest: "Oh, the eggs! How do I like them? Sorry.. Scrambled, please."

Room Service: "Ow July dee baykem? Crease?"

Guest: "Crisp will be fine."

Room Service: "Hokay. An Sahn toes?"

Guest: "What?"

Room Service: "An toes. July Sahn toes?"

Guest: "I... Don't think so."

RoomService: "No? Judo wan sahn toes???"

Guest: "I feel really bad about this, but I don't know what 'judo wan sahn toes' means."

RoomService: "Toes! Toes!...Why Joo don Juan toes? Ow bow Anglish moppin we bodder?"

Guest: "Oh, English muffin!!! I've got it! You were saying 'toast'... Fine...Yes, an English muffin will be fine."

RoomService: "We bodder?"

Guest: "No, just put the bodder on the side."

RoomService: "Wad?!?"

Guest: "I mean butter... Just put the butter on the side."

RoomService: "Copy?"

Guest: "Excuse me?"

RoomService: "Copy...tea..meel?"

Guest: "Yes. Coffee, please... And that's everything."

RoomService: "One Minnie. Scramah egg, crease baykem, Anglish moppin, we bodder on sigh and copy .... Rye ??"

Guest: "Whatever you say.."

RoomService: "Tenjooberrymuds."

Guest: "You're welcome"

Remember I said "By the time you read through this YOU WILL UNDERSTAND 'TENJOOBERRYMUDS' ".......and you do, don't you!
Thank You Very Much!!
Source: Internet

History of Sears Modern Homes

The hour has arrived. Dad gathers Mom and Sis into the carriage. He hops in the wagon with his brothers to ride off to the railroad station. The day and hour have come to greet the first shipment of your family’s brand-new house. All the lumber will be precut and arrive with instructions for your dad and uncles to assemble and build. Mom and Dad picked out No. 140 from Sears, Roebuck and Company’s catalog. It will have two bedrooms and a cobblestone foundation, plus a front porch—but no bath. They really wanted No. 155, with a screened-in front porch, built-in buffet, and inside bath (!), but $1,100 was twice as much as Dad said he could afford. In just a few days, the whole family will sleep under the roof of your custom-made Sears Modern Home.
Entire homes would arrive by railroad, from precut lumber, to carved staircases, down to the nails and varnish. Families picked out their houses according to their needs, tastes, and pocketbooks. Sears provided all the materials and instructions, and for many years the financing, for homeowners to build their own houses. Sears’s Modern Homes stand today as living monuments to the fine, enduring, and solid quality of Sears craftsmanship.
No official tally exists of the number of Sears mail-order houses that still survive today. It is reported that more than 100,000 houses were sold between 1908 and 1940 through Sears’s Modern Homes program. The keen interest evoked in current homebuyers, architectural historians, and enthusiasts of American culture indicate that thousands of these houses survive in varying degrees of condition and original appearance.
It is difficult to appreciate just how important the Modern Homes program and others like it were to homebuyers in the first half of the twentieth century. Imagine for a moment buying a house in 1908. Cities were getting more crowded and had always been dirty breeding grounds for disease in an age before vaccines. The United States was experiencing a great economic boom, and millions of immigrants who wanted to share in this wealth and escape hardship were pouring into America’s big cities. City housing was scarce, and the strong economy raised labor costs, which sent new-home prices soaring.
The growing middle class was leaving the city for the—literally—greener pastures of suburbia as trolley lines and the railroad extended lifelines for families who needed to travel to the city. Likewise, companies were building factories on distant, empty parcels of land and needed to house their workers. Stately, expensive Victorian-style homes were not options for any but the upper class of homeowner. Affordable, mail-order homes proved to be just the answer to such dilemmas.
Sears was neither the first nor the only company to sell mail-order houses, but they were the largest, selling as many as 324 units in one month (May, 1926). The origin of the Modern Homes program is actually to be found a decade before houses were sold. Sears began selling building materials out of its catalogs in 1895, but by 1906 the department was almost shut down until someone had a better idea. Frank W. Kushel, who was reassigned to the unprofitable program from managing the china department, believed the homebuilding materials could be shipped straight from the factories, thus eliminating storage costs for Sears. This began a successful 25-year relationship between Kushel and the Sears Modern Homes program.
To advertise the company’s new and improved line of building supplies, a Modern Homes specialty catalog, the Book of Modern Homes and Building Plans, appeared in 1908. For the first time, Sears sold complete houses, including the plans and instructions for construction of 22 different styles, announcing that the featured homes were "complete, ready for occupancy." By 1911, Modern Homes catalogs included illustrations of house interiors, which provided homeowners with blueprints for furnishing the houses with Sears appliances and fixtures.
It should be noted that suburban families were not the only Modern Home dwellers. Sears expanded its line to reflect the growing demand from rural customers for ready-made buildings. In 1923, Sears introduced two new specialty catalogs, Modern Farm Buildings and Barn. The barn catalog boasted "a big variety of scientifically planned" farm buildings, from corncribs to tool sheds. The simple, durable, and easy-to-construct nature of the Sears farm buildings made them particularly attractive to farmers.
Modern Homes must have seemed like pennies from heaven, especially to budget-conscious first-time homeowners. For example, Sears estimated that, for a precut house with fitted pieces, it would take only 352 carpenter hours as opposed to 583 hours for a conventional house—a 40% reduction! Also, Sears offered loans beginning in 1911, and by 1918 it offered customers credit for almost all building materials as well as offering advanced capital for labor costs. Typical loans ran at 5 years, with 6% interest, but loans could be extended over as many as 15 years.
Sears’s liberal loan policies eventually backfired, however, when the Depression hit. 1929 saw the high point of sales with more than $12 million, but $5.6 million of that was in mortgage loans. Finally, in 1934, $11 million in mortgages were liquidated, and despite a brief recovery in the housing market in 1935, the Modern Homes program was doomed. By 1935, Sears was selling only houses, not lots or financing, and despite the ever-brimming optimism of corporate officials, Modern Homes sold its last house in 1940.
Between 1908 and 1940, Modern Homes made an indelible mark on the history of American housing. A remarkable degree of variety marks the three-plus decades of house design by Sears. A skilled but mostly anonymous group of architects designed 447 different houses. Each of the designs, though, could be modified in numerous ways, including reversing floor plans, building with brick instead of wood siding, and many other options.
Sears had the customer in mind when it expanded its line of houses to three different expense levels to appeal to customers of differing means. While Honor Bilt was the highest-quality line of houses, with its clear-grade (no knots) flooring and cypress or cedar shingles, the Standard Built and Simplex Sectional lines were no less sturdy, yet were simpler designs and did not feature precut and fitted pieces. Simplex Sectional houses actually included farm buildings, outhouses, garages, and summer cottages.
The American landscape is dotted by Sears Modern Homes. Few of the original buyers and builders remain to tell the excitement they felt when traveling to greet their new house at the train station. The remaining homes, however, stand as testaments today to that bygone era and to the pride of home built by more than 100,000 Sears customers and fostered by the Modern Homes program.

Source: Sears

Chronology Of The Sears Modern Home Program

1895–1900Building supplies are sold through Sears, Roebuck and Company general catalog 1906
Sears considered closing its unprofitable building supplies department
Frank W. Kushel (formerly manager of the china department) took over the building supplies department and realizes supplies can be shipped directly from the factory, thus saving storage costs
First specialty catalog issued for houses, Book of Modern Homes and Building Plans, featuring 22 styles ranging in price from $650–2,500
Mansfield, LA, lumber mill purchased
First bill of materials sold for complete Modern Home
Home designers added gas and electric light fixtures
Cairo, IL, lumber mill opens
First mortgage loan issued (typically 5–15 years at 6% interest)
Norwood, OH, millwork plant purchased
Mortgages transferred to credit committee
Mortgages later discontinued
Mortgages revived
Ready-made production began
The popular “Winona” introduced; featured in catalogs through 1940
First applied roofing office opened in Dayton, OH
No-money-down financing offered
Standard Oil Company purchased 192 houses for its mineworkers in Carlinville, IL (approximately $1 million)
First Modern Homes sales office opened in Akron, OH
Modern Homes catalog featured the Standard Oil housing community
Philadelphia plant became the East Coast base
Sears averaged nearly 125 units shipped per month
Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Dayton sales offices opened
Chicago, Philadelphia, Washington sales offices opened
Honor Bilt homes feature deluxe kitchens, with white-tile sink and drain boards and white, enameled cupboards
Columbus, OH, sales office opened
Detroit sales office opened; Philadelphia became East branch of Modern Homes
Newark, NJ, lumber mill began
Cairo, IL, plant ships 324 units in one month (May)
Honor Bilt homes featuring “Air-Sealed-Wall construction,” which enclosed every room with a “sealed air space” to increase insulation
Sears began supervising the construction of homes
Sears shipping an average of 250 units per month just from Cairo, IL
Nearly 49,000 units sold to this point
Program’s high point of sales reached ($12,050,000); nearly half, however, are tied up in mortgage loans as the stock market crashes
Sears had 350 different sales people working in 48 sales offices
Home specialty catalog proclaims Sears the “World’s Largest Home Builders”
Mortgage financing discontinued
Construction supervision abandoned, except in greater New York City
Modern Homes catalog featured models of Mount Vernon and New York City’s Federal Hall.
Annual Report announced the Modern Homes department was discontinued
All mortgage accounts were liquidated ($11 million)
Steel-framed, air-conditioned Modern Home exhibit featured at the Century of Progress World’s Fair
Sears reopened the house department
Offered only houses, no financing or construction.
Houses were prefabricated by General Houses, Incorporated (Chicago)
Sales reached $2 million
Sales reached $3.5 million
Last appearance of department in the general catalog.
Sales reached $2.75 million
Cairo, IL, millwork plant sold to the employees who used their profit-sharing money to make the purchase
Last catalog issued (Book of Modern Homes). Sears ends Modern Homes program, having sold more than 100,000 units, not including cabins, cottages, garages, outhouses, and farm buildings.

Source: Sears

What Is A Sears Modern Home?

From 1908–1940, Sears, Roebuck and Co. sold about 70,000 - 75,000 homes through their mail-order Modern Homes program. Over that time Sears designed 447 different housing styles, from the elaborate multistory Ivanhoe, with its elegant French doors and art glass windows, to the simpler Goldenrod, which served as a quaint, three-room and no-bath cottage for summer vacationers. (An outhouse could be purchased separately for Goldenrod and similar cottage dwellers.) Customers could choose a house to suit their individual tastes and budgets.Sears was not an innovative home designer. Sears was instead a very able follower of popular home designs but with the added advantage of modifying houses and hardware according to buyer tastes. Individuals could even design their own homes and submit the blueprints to Sears, which would then ship off the appropriate precut and fitted materials, putting the home owner in full creative control. Modern Home customers had the freedom to build their own dream houses, and Sears helped realize these dreams through quality custom design and favorable financing.
Designing a Sears Home
The process of designing your Sears house began as soon as the Modern Homes catalog arrived at your doorstep. Over time, Modern Homes catalogs came to advertise three lines of homes, aimed for customers’ differing financial means: Honor Bilt, Standard Built, and Simplex Sectional.Honor Bilt homes were the most expensive and finest quality sold by Sears. Joists, studs, and rafters were to be spaced 14 3/8 inches apart. Attractive cypress siding and cedar shingles adorned most Honor Bilt exteriors. And, depending on the room, interiors featured clear-grade (i.e., knot-free) flooring and inside trim made from yellow pine, oak, or maple wood. Sears’s catalogs also reported that Standard Built homes were best for warmer climates, meaning they did not retain heat very well. The Simplex Sectional line, as the name implies, contained simple designs. Simplex houses were frequently only a couple of rooms and were ideal for summer cottages.
While browsing the Imagebank, you may see many houses that partially or even closely resemble a house that you own or have seen. Look closely, because the floor plan may be reversed, a dormer may have been added, or the original buyer may have chosen brick instead of wood siding. Plumbing may look like it was added after construction, or storm windows may appear on the house but not in the catalog’s illustration.
All of this and more are possible, because the Modern Homes program encouraged custom designing houses down to the color of the cabinetry hardware. The difficulty in identifying a Sears home is just a reflection of the unique design and tastes of the original buyer (see FAQs).
As mentioned above, Sears was not an innovator in home design or construction techniques; however, Modern Home designs did offer distinct advantages over other construction methods. The ability to mass-produce the materials used in Sears homes lessened manufacturing costs, which lowered purchase costs for customers. Not only did precut and fitted materials shrink construction time up to 40% but Sears’s use of "balloon style" framing, drywall, and asphalt shingles greatly eased construction for homebuyers."Balloon style" framing. These framing systems did not require a team of skilled carpenters, as previous methods did. Balloon frames were built faster and generally only required one carpenter. This system uses precut timber of mostly standard 2_4s and 2_8s for framing. Precut timber, fitted pieces, and the convenience of having everything, including the nails, shipped by railroad directly to the customer added greatly to the popularity of this framing style.
Drywall. Before drywall, plaster and lathe wall-building techniques were used, which again required skilled carpenters. Sears homes took advantage of the new homebuilding material of drywall by shipping large quantities of this inexpensively manufactured product with the rest of the housing materials. Drywall offered advantages of low price, ease of installation, and was added fire-safety protection. It was also a good fit for the square design of Sears homes.
Asphalt shingles. It was during the Modern Homes program that large quantities of asphalt shingles became available. The alternative roofing materials available included, among others, tin and wood. Tin was noisy during storms, looked unattractive, and required a skilled roofer, while wood was highly flammable. Asphalt shingles, however, were cheap to manufacture and ship, as well as easy and inexpensive to install. Asphalt had the added incentive of being fireproof.
Modern Conveniences
Sears helped popularize the latest technology available to modern homebuyers in the early part of the twentieth century. Central heating, indoor plumbing, and electricity were all new developments in home design that Modern Homes incorporated, although not all of the homes were designed with these conveniences. Central heating not only improved the livability of homes with little insulation but it also improved fire safety, always a worry in an era where open flames threatened houses and whole cities, in the case of the Chicago Fire. Indoor plumbing and homes wired for electricity were the first steps to modern kitchens and bathrooms. Sears Modern Homes program stayed abreast of any technology that could ease the lives of its homebuyers and gave them the option to design their homes with modern convenience in mind.


Sears Home Of Chicago
Source: Sears Brands

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Darien, Georgia

Darien is a city in McIntosh County, Georgia. It lies on Georgia's coast at the mouth of the Altamaha River about 50 miles south of Savannah, and is part of the Brunswick, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population of Darien was 1,719 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of McIntosh County. It is the second oldest planned city in Georgia and was originally called New Inverness.
Darien City Hall


Settlement of Darien

Historical markers
Fort King George (Georgia's oldest fort) was built in 1721, near what would become Darien. At the time it was the southern-most outpost of the British Empire in North America. The fort was abandoned in 1727 following attacks from the Spanish.

The town of Darien (originally known as New Inverness) was founded in January 1736 by Scottish Highlanders recruited by James Oglethorpe to act as settler-soldiers protecting the frontiers of Georgia from the Spanish in Florida, the French in the Alabama basin and their Indian allies. On 10 January 1736, 177 emigrants, including women and children, arrived on board the Prince of Wales to establish Darien, which was named after the Darien Scheme, a former Scottish colony in Panama. Among the initial settlers was Lachlan McGillivray, the Indian trader, and Lachlan McIntosh, the revolutionary leader. The Scots originated mainly from around Inverness and consisted of both Jacobite and Hanoverian supporting clans, the majority of whom spoke only Gaelic. When visited by Oglethorpe in February the settlers had already constructed "a battery of four pieces of cannon, built a guardhouse, a storehouse, a chapel, and several huts for particular people". Darien was laid out in accordance with the now-famous Oglethorpe Plan.
Methodist church.
They showed similar progress in the construction of military forts, by March the Scottish settlers had begun work on two forts, Fort St. Andrews on Cumberland Island, and Fort St. George on the St. Johns River 60 miles to the south of the territory claimed by the British government in the charter of the Georgia colony. Fort St. George was later abandoned after agreement with the Spanish in October 1736. In 1736 work was also begun on Fort Frederica, which is on St. Simons Island, a few miles south of Darien, between Darien and Cumberland Island. As the Scots were intended as a military force those settlers whose travel was paid for by the Trustees of the Colony were organized into two companies, the Highland Independent Company of Foot, an infantry force, and the Highland Rangers, a mounted force. By 1737 the constant military activity of the Darien colony was taking its toll and an additional forty-four Highland settlers arrived to expand the town.

Initially the settlers' economy was based on the cultivation of crops; however, after the first year they experienced a succession of poor harvests and concentrated more on the rearing of cattle and the felling of timber for sale in nearby Savannah.
First African Baptist church.
In 1739 eighteen of the most prominent members of the Darien colony signed the first petition against the introduction of slavery into Georgia. This was in response to pleas to Oglethorpe and the Trustees by inhabitants of Savannah to lift their prohibition on slavery. The Highlanders' petition was successful and slavery was not introduced until ten years later in 1749.

A constant state of conflict continued with Spanish and Indian forces during this time. However, it did not grow beyond the level of occasional skirmishes until the onset of the War of Jenkins' Ear in October 1739. In November in response to the death of two Scots garrisoned on Amelia Island from an ambush by Spanish allied Indians the Darien settlers mobilized and together with forces from South Carolina captured the Spanish forts of Fort Picolata, Fort St. Francis de Pupo, Fort San Diego and Fort Mose before attempting to lay siege to St. Augustine. The subsequent Battle of Fort Mose resulted in the death or capture of fifty-one of the Darien settlers.

After the battle a number of the settlers abandoned Darien for South Carolina and by 1741 another shipload of forty-three colonists had arrived. These colonists received land grants from the Trustees which specified that the land was to descend to the male or female descendants of the original recipients, in 'Tail General', this was a unique change as previously, with a few specific exceptions in Darien, all land grants in the American colonies had been granted in 'Tail Male', descending to the male children. The new system caused great discontent among the Highland Settlers as it went against their traditional land holding and inheritance practices. In future the majority of Georgia land grants were made in 'Tail General'.

Civil War and after

Historical marker about destruction.
Ruins of 1863 destruction of the city.
On 11 June 1863, Federal troops stationed on St. Simons Island looted and then destroyed most of the town, including the homes of the black residents/slaves. (This was not part of Sherman's March to the Sea, which occurred more than a year later. Confusion has arisen because the St. Simons Island troops were under the command of another General Sherman, stationed in the South Carolina Sea Islands). The destruction of this undefended city, which was of little strategic importance, was carried out by the 54th Massachusetts Volunteers under the command of a reluctant Colonel Robert Gould Shaw (who would later call the raid a "Satanic action") and the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers under the command of Colonel James Montgomery. Colonel Montgomery ordered that the town be looted and then burned. Montgomery's troops broke ranks and looted freely, while Shaw ordered his to take only that which would be useful at camp. The First African Baptist Church (the oldest African-American church in the county) was destroyed along with the rest of the town. It was rebuilt and later some meetings of the Civil rights movement were held there.
After the U.S. Army invaded McIntosh County and destroyed Darien, gunboats were used to blockade the ports. These personnel constantly plundered McIntosh County. The only defense to the plundering that the county had was a group of men too old for military service. On the night of 3 August 1864, the county's elderly defenders had met at the Ebenezer Church, nine miles north of Darien. Federal troops found out about the meeting from local informants. The troops surrounded the church, opened fire, and captured twenty-three old men. These civilians were marched to a landing near Darien and put on ships and taken to prisons in the North.
Marker at Methodist church.
Following the Civil War, Darien was rebuilt, with financial aid coming in small part from the family of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, who had been killed during the War but had written of his shame in participating in the destruction.
Postbellum house.
Into the early 1900's, Darien was one of the largest ports for shipping lumber. When the timber was depleted, Darien became a fishing village, primarily for Georgia wild shrimp. It was once famous for its oysters.

There are thirty-two markers of historic sites near Darien and forty-two markers in McIntosh County. (See the external link for a list.)

Darien in the 21st century has once again shown signs of growth as it did in the period prior to the Civil War.

In an effort to change with the time the City has changed its form of government to council/manager and has hired the first City Manager in Darien or McIntosh County. With the formation of the Interstate Highway System, Interstate 95 was constructed and passes approximately a mile west of the city. This in turn caused development near the I-95 interchange with GA-251, where there are now several chain restaurants, gas stations, hotels, as well as a small outlet mall. Downtown Darien has flourished as well and many new businesses have opened due to the proximity to the waterfront.


McIntosh County School District

The McIntosh County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, that consists of two elementary schools, a middle school, and a high school. The district has 121 full-time teachers and over 1,979 students.
  • Oak Grove Intermediate School
  • Todd Grant Elementary School
  • McIntosh County Middle School
  • McIntosh County Academy

External links

Source: Internet

Primrose Cottage

Primrose Cottage was the first permanent private home in Roswell, Georgia, United States. The house built and completed in 1839 for Roswell King's recently widowed daughter, Eliza King Hand, and her children. Roswell King also moved into the house with his daughter's family.

As of 2006, the house functions as an events facility.

 External Links

Roswell King

Roswell King (1765 – February 15, 1844) was an American businessman, planter and industrialist. King and his son, Barrington King, founded Roswell Manufacturing Company in the Georgia Piedmont, establishing a cotton mill and industrial complex. This became the basis of the town of Roswell, Georgia in the 1830's.

Early life
Barrington Hall, built in 1842.
King was born in Windsor, Connecticut, the son of Timothy King, a weaver and Revolutionary naval commander, and Sarah (Fitch) King. At the age of fifteen, he moved to Darien, Georgia and started working. His early professional life included jobs as surveyor in Glynn County, and Justice of the Peace in McIntosh County.

Plantation manager

King eventually became manager of Major Pierce Butler's rice and cotton plantations on Butler and St. Simons islands, Georgia, where he worked until 1820. The plantations covered hundreds of acres on each island. A total of 500 slaves worked and lived on the two plantations. King also had a plantation of his own and numerous slaves to work it in Darien.

In the 1830's, King moved his family from the coast to the Piedmont area around Vickery Creek (referred to as Cedar Creek at the time), the area of the future town of Roswell. King had identified this as a good area for the construction of a cotton mill. He had the idea to combine cotton production and cotton processing at the same location. He invited planter friends James Stephens Bulloch and Archibald Smith to join him in the new enterprise.

Roswell, Georgia

When he moved, King transported 36 enslaved African Americans with him from his plantation and bought another 42 slaves in Darien to work on constructing the mill, infrastructure and other buildings at the new complex.[1] The slaves likely built much of his house(s) as well. They brought Gee Chee culture from the coast to the Piedmont area.

King dammed the creek to power a cotton mill, which became fully operational by the latter half of the decade. The mill was incorporated as the Roswell Manufacturing Company by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 11, 1839. His son Barrington King served as the company president. Other people named in the act included John Dunwoody and James Stephens Bulloch.

After living in temporary homes for his first years in the area, Roswell King (who was recently widowed) moved into Primrose Cottage in 1839 along with his recently widowed daughter Eliza King Hand and her children. He died on February 15, 1844.

He was buried in what is now referred to as Founders' Cemetery on Sloan Street in Roswell, just to the north of the original location of the mill. Some of his personal "servants" (enslaved African Americans) were buried near him in unmarked graves.

Barrington King

Barrington King and Roswell Manufacturing Company continued to depend on the skills and labor of enslaved African Americans as he built the business in Roswell. According to the 1850 Census Slave Schedules, King personally held 70 slaves, and he controlled another 13 slaves held in the name of Roswell Manufacturing Company. In 1860, King still held 47 slaves. He may have sold some when the heavy construction work was finished.

Plantation managers

As powerful and successful men, Roswell King and his sons lived out some of the complexities of their times. Roswell King, Sr. had conflicts with Major Pierce Butler when he managed his island plantations in Georgia, because Butler took a more moderate approach to the treatment of slaves than King did. Butler was one of the wealthiest men in the South when King worked for him. After he left in 1820, Butler hired his son Roswell King, Jr. as plantation manager.

In the winter of 1838-1839, the new owner Pierce (Mease) Butler and his wife Fanny Kemble stayed for the winter at Butler and St. Simons islands.According to Kemble's journal of the visit, Roswell King was reported to have fathered one or more mixed-race children by enslaved women. She wrote that Bran, a mixed-race slave said to be King's son, was conceived and born while King's wife was still alive. He became a driver (supervisor) of other slaves on the plantation.

Roswell King, Jr. (1796–1854), the second son and namesake, took over as manager of the Butler plantations in 1820 and worked there until 1838, after which he went to his own plantation in Alabama. Kemble wrote in her journal, published in 1863, that he was said to have fathered several mixed-race children during his tenure. She identified them as including Renty, the twins Ben and Daphne, and Jem Valiant, whose mothers were the slave women Betty, Minda, Judy, and Scylla (her child was unidentified).

These children were born into slavery, as under slave law, children took the status of their mother by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem. Kemble attested to these children by her direct observations and from stories told her by slaves during her residence. During this period, she complained to her husband about King, Jr.'s harsh treatment of slaves, as the women especially appealed to her for help to lighten their work.

With their marriage deteriorating, Butler threatened Kemble with no access to their daughters if she published any of her observations about the plantations.

Kemble did not publish her account until 1863, long after their divorce in 1849 and after her daughters had reached their majority. According to the historian Catherine Clinton, King Jr.'s granddaughter, Julia King, wrote to a friend in 1930, saying that Kemble had told lies about her grandfather because he refused to return her affections. The historian Bell documented that the marriage of Kemble and Pierce Butler was fraught with conflict by that time, and was undermined by episodes of spousal infidelity. It ended in separation in 1847 and divorce in 1849.

According to Clinton, Kemble may have falsified portions of her journal. The historian Deirdre David says some readers have found Kemble's descriptions of slaves' appearances and lives to be racist. But, David notes that Kemble's views on race were "not anomalous" in the 19th-century among English writings on the topic. In that context, David described Kemble's descriptions as "relatively mild and moderately conventional." (Historians of the period have noted such contradictions in many contemporary writings, including those of Thomas Jefferson, who opposed slavery but was prejudiced against blacks.)

David notes that King Jr. published his own account of the "brutal system he deplored" in a long letter to The Southern Agriculturalist on 13 September 1828, in which he said that overseers were responsible for much of the cruelty to slaves. He preferred to use differing work rather than physical punishment, for instance, and said he did not condone whipping. David notes that if his account in his letter is accurate, the diet and treatment of slaves on the Butler plantation seemed to have deteriorated dramatically between 1828 and what Kemble saw and reported in 1838, shortly after King Jr. had left.

Kemble's journal appears to quote King Jr. verbatim:
"I hate the institution of slavery with all my heart; I consider it an absolute curse wherever it exists. It will keep those states where it does exist fifty years behind the others in improvement and prosperity."
She reveals his contradictions of character.

External links

"Chapter 6 Historic Preservation Element" (pdf). City of Roswell, Georgia, Comprehensive Plan 2025. November 7, 2005. p. 172. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
partus sequitur ventrem
Primrose Cottage 
Gee Chee 
Darien, GA
Archibald Smith 

Source: Internet 

Barrington Hall (Roswell, Georgia)

Barrington Hall, built in 1842, was the home of Barrington King, who along with his father, Roswell King, was the co-founder of the town of Roswell, Georgia. The King family, along with the other "founding families" of Roswell, moved from the coast of Georgia after Roswell came across this area in the late 1820's, and decided it was a perfect location for a mill town. Roswell picked the location due to the water power potential of Vickery Creek. In 1839 the Roswell Manufacturing Co. was incorporated, and in the late 1830-the 1840's the "founding families" built their homes in the Roswell colony. Barrington King selected the highest point in Roswell for his home, Barrington Hall. It was built in the Greek Revival style of architecture.

 Barrington Hall North.JPG
Barrington Hall in Roswell, Georgia

 The home remained in the hands of the Barrington King Family until 2002. The new owner spent two years restoring the property, and then sold it to City of Roswell with agreements designed to ensure the home would be permanently protected and open to the public for historic, educational and cultural purpose.


The historic home is now owned by the City of Roswell, and opened to the public. It is located in the Historic Roswell Square on Barrington Drive The home has been diligently restored and furnished with many original family possessions. The surrounding seven acres of grounds feature the only antebellum public garden in the greater Atlanta area.

Barrington Hall is listed on the National Register and was included in Atlanta magazine's list of the 50 Most Beautiful Homes in Metro Atlanta.

External links

Source: Internet

Roswell Mill

Roswell Mill ruins, May 2009.
Roswell Mill refers to a cluster of mills located in Fulton County near Vickery Creek in Roswell, GA.The mills were best known for producing finished textiles from raw materials grown on nearby plantations, and the group was “the largest cotton mill in north Georgia” at its height. The mill grew steadily, at one point producing wool and flour in addition to textiles. This diversification progressed through several phases of ownership well into the twentieth century, and the mill continued producing textiles until its eventual shutting down of operations in 1975.


The old dam on Vickery Creek.


The first mill was founded by Roswell King, a wealthy Connecticut businessman who had previously settled in Darien, Georgia, a small town on the state's Atlantic coast. He spent time as a construction manager, local militia officer (his father, Timothy King was a Revolutionary War veteran), and as a Representative in the Georgia State Legislature. He had also worked as the supervisor of Major Pierce Butler's two large plantations, in which office King was noted for his meticulous attention to detail in the day-to-day operations of the plantations. It was this strict recordkeeping that made King especially suited for factory management. Construction of the original mill started in 1836. Roswell King owned slaves, many of whom helped to build his home and the original mill; however, the number of slaves his family owned decreased once the mill was operating. Barrington King and Ralph King, two of Roswell’s sons, moved to the area to help run the fledgling business. Five families from the Atlantic city of Darien would later move to Roswell, which was incorporated into Fulton County in 1854, eighteen years after the mill’s first opening. An outbreak of the mumps and measles in 1847-8 left “over half the workers stricken and three slaves dead,” likely due to the fact that the workers were living in close quarters and dark, cramped conditions.

Structure of Building

Roswell Bricks in 2007
Hydropower from Vickery Creek powered the mill, and nearby plantations supplied the raw cotton for processing. The first building was four stories high, eighty-eight feet long and forty-eight feet wide, though it was later expanded to 140 by fifty-three feet. The Roswell Mill was incorporated in 1839 by the Georgia General Assembly. The King family built two buildings, known as The Bricks, in which mill employees lived. A second mill was added in 1853, and in the Antebellum period the mill complex expanded to include six different structures.

Civil War Era

The Roswell Mills are best known for their role in producing supplies for the Confederacy during the Civil War. They made “Roswell Gray” fabric to be sewed into Confederate military uniforms. Because it was of great importance to the South’s military supply chain, General Gerrard, a Union official working under the purview of General Sherman, seized the mill on July 5, 1864. The rebels burned down the bridge that spanned Vickery Creek before he could get to it. Two days after the taking of the mill, General William T. Sherman remarked, "I have ordered General Gerrard to arrest for treason all owners and employees, foreign and native, and send them under guard to Marietta, whence I will send them North...The women can find employment in Indiana." The reference to the foreigners were made because the mill owners, apparently in a ploy to safeguard the mills, planted a French flag on the mills and made a French millhand in charge.

Deportation of Workers

The taking of the mill was not just a capture of infrastructure. The Union troops took about 400 mill workers, all of them women and children, to Marietta to be sent North on trains. The lack of adult male workers in the mill was a result of their fighting for the Confederacy in the Civil War at the time the mill was captured. All of the mill workers were charged with treason. They spent a week in holding at the Georgia Military Institute before being sent North, many to Indiana, on trains. During the week while the women were held in Marietta, several Union soldiers allegedly committed acts of assault against their captives. They were then left to fend for themselves in Indiana, in towns already overcrowded with refugees. Many would die from starvation or exposure until a mill opened in 1865 that provided employment. The ultimate fates of many of these women are unknown, but the majority who survived settled in the North. Only a handful ever returned to Georgia.

Postbellum Developments

During the Reconstruction period and the beginning of the twentieth century, the Roswell Manufacturing Company underwent several important changes. In 1897, the mills began using steam power, which improved productivity but kept the mill dependent on Vickery Creek. Easley Cotton Mills, a South Carolinian company, bought the mill complex for $800,000 in 1920. At that time, the mill had 120 looms and 12,000 spindles. This infrastructure is a testament to the mill's large production capacity and value to the city of Roswell. The fact that the mill changed ownership frequently suggests its declining value in the increasingly competitive twentieth-century market. Six years later, the mill was set on fire by a lightning strike, which caused about $400,000 in damage. The company was purchased by Southern Mills in 1947. In 1975, the mill halted operations as a result of outsourcing cotton production overseas. The mill's recent past is far less recorded in history than its pre-1950 history, probably an unconscious effort by local media outlets to focus on more modern aspects of the town and not its controversial Confederate past. There is no readily available record of the impact of the mill's closing on the surrounding area. It seems that the mill lost much of its moneymaking power when the age of King Cotton had passed.

Current Status

The historic Roswell Mills are now under the jurisdiction of the United States National Park Service. The mills are considered part of the Chattahoochee River Recreation Area, a popular local tourist destination due to its nature trails, running paths, and rich history. Remnants of various buildings are still visible, and the covered bridge spanning Vickery Creek has been rebuilt. A private contractor was scheduled to clear away the effects of the elements from the mill site in the summer of 2008. The appearance of the mills suggest that the focus has been on conservation, not preservation. A sculpture of a crumbling column stands near the mill as a memorial to those who were deported, and its inscription reads as follows:


The monument was made public in 2000, following a rise in interest in the tragedies that surrounded the deportation, which had been largely forgotten in the aftermath of the Civil War.

External links

 Source: Internet