See Rock City

See Rock City

Tuesday, February 26, 2013


My Dad is cleaning out my grandmother's house (she died in December) and he brought me an old lemonade bottle. In the bottle top was a stopper with a bunch of holes in it. I knew immediately what it was, but my daughter had no idea. She thought they had tried to make it a salt shaker or something. I knew it as the bottle that sat on the end of the ironing board to 'sprinkle' clothes with because we didn't have steam irons. Man, I am old.

How many do you remember?

Headlight dimmer-switches on the floor of the car.

Ignition switches on the dashboard, with push button start.

Trouser leg clips for bicycles without chain guards.

Soldering irons you heated on a gas burner.

Using hand signals for cars without turn indicators.

Source: Internet

Does This Bring Back Any Memories?

A youngster asked the other day: 'What was your favourite 'fast food' when you were growing up?'

'We didn't have fast food when I was growing up,' I informed him. 'All the food was slow.'

'C'mon, seriously... where did you eat?'

'It was a place called 'home', I explained. 'Mum cooked every day and when Dad got home from work, we sat down together at the dining room table, and if I didn't like what she put on my plate, I was allowed to sit there until I did like it.'

By this time, the lad was laughing so hard I was afraid he was going to suffer serious internal damage, so I didn't tell him the part about how I had to have permission to leave the table.

But here are some other things I would have told him about my childhood if I'd figured his system could have handled it:

Some parents NEVER owned their own house, wore jeans, set foot on a golf course, travelled out of the country or had a credit card.

My parents never drove me to school... I had a bicycle that weighed probably 50 pounds, and only had one speed (slow).

We didn't have a television in our house until I was 10. It was, of course, black and white, and the station went off the air at 10 PM, after playing the national anthem and epilogue; it came back on the air at about 6 am. And there was usually a locally produced news and farm show on, featuring
local people...

Pizzas were not delivered to our home... But milk was.

All newspapers were delivered by boys and all boys delivered newspapers - my brother delivered a newspaper, seven days a week. He had to get up at 6am every morning.

Film stars kissed with their mouths shut. At least, they did in the films.
There were no movie ratings because all movies were responsibly produced for everyone to enjoy viewing, without profanity or violence or almost anything offensive.

If you grew up in a generation before there was fast food, you may want to share some of these memories with your children or grandchildren. Just don't blame me if they bust a gut laughing.

Growing up isn't what it used to be, is it?

Source: Internet

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Impress You Friends

For those times when you want to impress your friends or guests.

Source: Internet

Difference Between http and https-- GREAT Information!

Once in a while, there is something that comes down the pike that is of real importance.

What is the difference between http and https?

Don't know how many of you are aware of this difference, but it is worth sending to any who do not.

The main difference between http:/// and https:// is it's all about keeping you secure.

HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.

The S (big surprise) stands for "Secure."

If you visit a website or web page, and look at the address in the web browser, it will likely begin with the following: http://.

This means that the website is talking to your browser using the regular "unsecured" language. In other words, it is possible for someone to "eavesdrop" on your computer's conversation with the website. If you fill out a form on the website, someone might see the information you send to that site.

This is why you never ever enter your credit card number in an http website! But if the web address begins with https://, that basically means your computer is talking to the website in a secure code that no one can eavesdrop on.

If a website ever asks you to enter your credit card information, you should automatically look to see if the web address begins with https://.

If it doesn't, you should NEVER enter sensitive information.......such as a credit card number, SS #, etc.

Source: Internet


Words To Avoid

1- You have to…

2- You can’t…..

3- What is your problem?

4- I’ll try, don’t know

5- I need you to…

6- We can’t do that

Words To Use

1- Will you…

2- Would you…

3- Can you tell me about the problem?

4- Let me find out

5- Could you?

6- What we can do is…

Source: Internet

2013 ~ The Chinese Year Of The Snake

The Chinese lunar new year is the year of the snake. It sure is in Florida ! I've gotten many emails to update you guys on our big snake hunt. The Python Challenge attracted about 1500 hunters from all over and at the end of the hunt (Feb.10) sixty-eight pythons had been eradicated from our Everglades. Had they been able to hunt in the Everglades National park, there would have probably been more successful. With that many people hunting and only 68 caught tells you how elusive these snakes really are. They are so well-adapted here and as you walk along, you can actually step on one without knowing it was there. According to the National Academy of Sciences, rabbits and raccoon have completely vanished from the Everglades. Possums are down 98% and bobcats 88%. If we don't do something, there will be nothing BUT these snakes (and some alligators) in the Everglades. It's not their fault they are there. Some people put them out when they get too big for a pet. There is a hypothesis that during hurricane Andrew, thousands escaped snake farms in the area. Whatever, it's getting to be a dangerous place. I feel sorry for the snakes but as food declines in the Everglades, guess where the snakes will go for it -- yards where your pets and children are. Florida has asked Congress for help but all they say is "it's Florida's problem. ( Invasive Pythons Aren't Just Florida's Problem --). They will expand to other places that can support them. They are excellent swimmers too... how do you think they got to Key West? And they are reported to already be in the panhandle of Florida... watch out Southern USA.

Map of Current Range for Potential Burmese Python Survival

This python is trying to eat a Gator

Python 15 Feet Long, and 162 Pounds

They have a Venom 1 Team in Miami (attached to the Miami-Dade Fire Dept) who's job it is to go out when people spot unwanted snakes and animals in their yards. They keep many types of anti-venom so whenever anyone is bitten, they are there. Many people would die without this team and you can watch them work on Animal Planet's Swamp Wars.

Venom One - Miami's Snakebite Response Team

Welcome to The Python Hunters Website

Source: Internet

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Covington, TN

Covington is a city in central Tipton County, Tennessee. Covington is the largest city and county seat of, Tipton County. Covington is located in one of just five counties of West Tennessee that are located along the Mississippi River, thus it is in extreme western Tennessee. The city's population was 9,038 at the time of the 2010 U.S. Census.


Cannon in front of the Nature Center & Veteran's Memorial in Covington. Marker in the background shows Nathan Bedford Forrest's last speech. (2007)

The Covington area was originally inhabited by Native Americans of various tribes. The nearby Mississippi River was used for much north-south trade by the American Indians.

Since Tipton County is one of the five counties of the State of Tennessee that is located along the Mississippi River, this area was first explored by white people during the noted expedition of the French Canadians Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet in 1673. This expedition went down the Mississippi from Wisconsin to the mouth of the Arkansas River, and then back upriver to Lake Michigan. That river mouth is along the present border between Arkansas and Mississippi. Also, the fine details of the route of the land expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto are not known, but it is likely that de Soto and his men passed near here circa 1541.

During the 18th century, because this entire area consists of flatlands with long, hot summers, and adequate rainfall, the Covington area and the rest of West Tennessee grew to become the location of large plantations for growing huge crops of cotton (and a few foodcrops). Hence African slaves were brought to Western Tennessee early in its history, and West Tennessee was the nexus of slavery in Tennessee, since most of the rest of the state had relatively few slaves.

During the Civil War, one of the primary objectives of the Union Army and Union Navy was to split the Confederate States in two along the Mississippi River. The Confederate Army resisted this, but still the counties of Tennessee and northeastern Arkansas, including Tipton County, were among the early ones to be overrun and held by the Union Army. Thus, the war in the Covington area ended early.

Starting in the 1870's, Covington and its surroundings began to receive the benefits of the new technologies that were being invented and then extended across the middle of the United States: the railroad, telegraph, household electric power, a municipal pure water supply, the paving of the town's streets, and the provision of natural gas.

The Memphis and Paducah Railroad completed its tracks to Covington in July 1873. Next, the first telegraph line between Memphis and Covington was completed in 1882. In 1894, electric power came to Covington for the first time.

A municipal water system began providing the residents of Covington with pure drinking water beginning in 1898. In 1922, the paving of the streets began in Covington, and beginning in 1929, a natural gas company has operated to provide cooking gas and wintertime heating to homes and business in Covington. The time that telephone service in Covington originated is not known.

Following the invention of the automobile, during the 1910's and 1920's the United States began to construct more and more intercity paved highways in various regions of the county. These developed into the U.S. Numbered Highway System, and U.S. Route 51 was established. This highway connects Memphis and points south, via Covington and Cairo, Illinois, with Chicago. Thus, Covington became a small town along a major north-south highway of commerce and travel.

In the South Main Historic District in Covington, about 50 houses from the late 19th century and the early 20th century are still standing.


Covington is located in the Memphis, Tennessee Metropolitan Area, and it is located on U.S. Route 51, a major north-south highway connecting Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois.

Covington is situated on the southeastern edge of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, an area judged by geologists to have a high risk of earthquakes in the future.

Tipton County Museum

The Tipton County Museum is located in Covington. Amongst other things, this museum houses displays and exhibits from the county's history during the War Between the States. Mountings of local animal species are kept there, and fragments of mastodon bone show something about its natural history. Adjacent to the museum, there is a 20 acre park with a 0.5 miles (805 m) walking trail. Natural woodland and a man-made wetland give habitat to a few of the smaller local species such as turtles and birds.

The Veterans Memorial in front of the museum commemorates the soldiers from the county who lost their lives in wars. This museum is closed on Sundays and Mondays, and admission to the museum and to the park is free.


Covington Public Schools are part of Tipton County Schools. The Tipton County School District has eight elementary schools, five middle schools and four high schools.

Schools located in Covington include:

Austin Peay Elementary School

Crestview Elementary School

Covington Integrated Arts Academy

Crestview Middle School

Covington High School

Tipton County Alternative Learning Center

Dr. William E. Bibb is the Director of Schools.

Notable people of Covington

Tony Delk, American pro basketball player

The Hall-of-Fame composer and musician Isaac Hayes was born here

The actress Leigh Snowden named her granddaughter Covington, in honor of this town

Augustus Hill Garland, 11th Governor of Arkansas and Attorney General of the United States

Tipton County Museum

Source: Internet

Mason, TN

Mason is a town in Tipton County, Tennessee. The population was 1,089 at the 2000 census. Mason is located along U.S. Route 70, and is home to a federal detention facility.


The first rail service in Tipton County was established in December 1855, when the Memphis and Ohio Railroad completed the route from Memphis to Nashville, running through what is now the town of Mason.

Mason is best known to locals as a speed trap. Mason has a police chief and over 10 part-time officers, many who patrol simultaneously. Mason officers write in excess of 250 tickets per month compared with an average town of the same size that writes four to five. Mason accepts court authorized bribes in order to ensure the tickets do not show up on a persons state record. Covington-Tipton County Community Guide, Covington, Tennessee: Tipton County Chamber of Commerce, 2005

Source: Wikipedia

Burlison, TN

Burlison is a town in Tipton County, Tennessee. The population was 453 at the 2000 census.


Burlison has a post office, cotton gin, and a community center. The Burlison Community Center can be used by anyone who lives in the city limits, while non-residents are charged $75 for use. Burlison also has a park, located behind the community center. It is equipped with a basketball court, a playground, and picnic tables. There are no stop lights, only flashing lights and a few stop signs. There is also a BP gasoline station, referred to affectionately by residents as the "Burlison Mall.". The mayor is Frank Tyler.

Source: Internet

Atoka, TN

Welcome to the town of Atoka

Atoka is a town in Tipton County, Tennessee. The population was 3,235 at the 2000 census. World War I Medal of Honor recipient Joseph B. Adkinson is buried there.

Joseph B. Adkinson

Joseph B. Adkison, Medal of Honor recipient

Born January 4, 1892 Egypt, Tennessee

Died May 23, 1965 (aged 73) Atoka, Tennessee

Place of burial Atoka, Tennessee

Allegiance United States of America

Service/branch United States Army

Years of service 1917-1921

Rank Sergeant

Unit 119th Infantry Regiment

Battles/wars World War I

Awards Medal of Honor

Joseph Bernard Adkison (January 4, 1892 – May 23, 1965) was an American soldier serving in the U.S. Army during World War I who received the Medal of Honor for bravery.


Adkison was born in Egypt, Tennessee, and entered the Army in 1917 in Memphis. By mid-1918, Adkison and his division were involved in combat in France. On September 29, 1918, near Bellicourt, France, Adkison, by then a Sergeant, found he and his platoon pinned down by heavy German machine gun fire located fifty yards to their front.

Adkison, acting alone, charged the machine gun nest, kicked it over into the enemy trench, and using the bayonet fixed on his rifle captured the three man machine gun crew, allowing his platoon to advance. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1919, and was one of six soldiers from Tennessee to receive that medal for their service during the First World War. Another of the six was Alvin York, subject of the film Sergeant York starring actor Gary Cooper.

Adkison died in 1965, and is buried in Salem Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church in Atoka, Tennessee.

Medal of Honor citation

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 119th Infantry, 30th Division. Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, September 29, 1918. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Born: January 4, 1892, Egypt, Tenn. G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919.


When murderous machinegun fire at a range of 50 yards had made it impossible for his platoon to advance, and had caused the platoon to take cover Sergeant. Adkison alone, with the greatest intrepidity, rushed across the 50 yards of open ground directly into the face of the hostile machinegun kicked the gun from the parapet into the enemy trench, and at the point of the bayonet captured the 3 men manning the gun. The gallantry and quick decision of this soldier enabled the platoon to resume its advance.

Atoka Education System


Atoka Public Schools are part of Tipton County Schools. The Tipton County School District has eight elementary schools, five middle schools and four high schools.

Atoka Elementary School is located in Atoka.

Dr. William E. Bibb is the Director of Schools.

External Links

List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War I

"Joseph B. Adkinson". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-10-24.

"Home of Heros". Retrieved September 29, 2010.

"Joseph Adkinson MOH citation". Retrieved September 29, 2010.

Source: Internet

Brighton, TN

Brighton is a town in Tipton County, Tennessee. The population was 1,719 at the 2000 census.


Brighton was established in the year 1873 along the newly completed tracts of the Memphis and Paducah Railroad upon the lands of A. W. Smith, Sr. who gave the initial five acres for the Depot grounds. The new town was named for Mr. Bright, the first conductor on the Memphis Division of the said road.

The new town grew quickly. By the late 1870's, Brighton had two dry goods stores, three grocery stores, two saloons, two blacksmith shops, two wagon shops, one brick yard, one steam saw and grist mill, one steam cotton gin, a Baptist church, two physicians, and a population around 100.

In 1883, the veterans of the 7th Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate States of America made Brighton the permanent site of their annual reunion. At Brighton the veterans reunion took on new dimensions and it grew into a reunion of all Confederate veterans of Tipton County and the surrounding region. Over the years, attendance of this annual August event grew peeking at 15,000 in 1897. The Tipton County Confederate Veterans Reunion, as it became to be known, continued to be held at Brighton until 1940.

Brighton was incorporated by the Tennessee General Assembly in 1913 and the town today continues to operate under the same charter.

History Courtesy of Russell Bailey, Tipton County Historian


Brighton Public Schools are part of Tipton County Schools. The Tipton County School District has eight elementary schools, five middle schools and four high schools.[4]

Dr. William E. Bibb is the Director of Schools.

Schools located in Brighton include:

Brighton Elementary School

Brighton Middle School

Brighton High School

External Links

Tipton County History

Brighton History

Brighton Website

Tipton County, TN 1860 Federal Census

Source: Wikipedia

Peckerwood Point, TN

Peckerwood Point is an unincorporated community in Tipton County, Tennessee, United States.

Source: Internet

Munford, TN

Munford City Hall

Nickname(s): My Kind of Town


Munford Public Schools are part of Tipton County Schools. The Tipton County School District has eight elementary schools, five middle schools and four high schools.

Schools located in Munford include:

Munford Elementary School

Munford Middle School

Munford High School

Dr. William E. Bibb is the Director of Schools.

External links

Munford Website

Tipton County Schools

Source: Internet

Mt. Juliet, TN


Motto: The City Between the Lakes

Mount Juliet is a city located in western Wilson County, Tennessee. A suburb of Nashville, it is approximately 17 miles (27 km) east of downtown Nashville. Mount Juliet is located roughly between two major national east-west routes, Interstate 40 and U.S. Route 70. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 23,777, which represented a 91 percent increase over 2000. The city's official colors are the same as the town's high school: black and gold.


Dating back to the mid-1800's Cook's United Methodist Church is one of the oldest churches in Mt. Juliet

Mt. Juliet was formed in 1835 and became incorporated as a city in 1972. According to the Mt. Juliet Chamber of Commerce, the name of the town has two possible explanations. One theory is that the town was named for Julia Gleaves, a person who was renowned for taking care of those in need within the community. The most widely accepted story is that Mt. Juliet is named for a castle in County Kilkenny, Ireland. To date, it is the only known U.S. city with this name.


Sign on Lebanon Road welcoming commuters to Mt. Juliet

Recent annexations along the east side of South Rutland Road as well as a land swap with the City of Lebanon for the Bel Air at Beckwith project (southeast quadrant of I-40/Beckwith Road interchange) have increased the city's geographical area to approximately 21.78 square miles (56.4 km2).

Mt. Juliet's official city slogan is "The City Between The Lakes", reflecting the city's proximity to Old Hickory Lake (Cumberland River) to its north and Percy Priest Lake (Stones River) to its south, both of which are man-made reservoirs.


Mt. Juliet City Hall

Mt. Juliet was incorporated in 1972 and operates on a "City Manager" system. The city has five elected leaders: four commissioners Ted Floyd, James Maness, Art Giles and Jim Bradshaw (one from each of the city's four districts) and a mayor Ed Hagerty, elected at-large, who serves as chairperson of the City Commission. Elected officials, including the mayor, are not employed full-time by the city. The Commission selects and appoints a City Manager, who is employed full-time and runs the city's business on a day-to-day basis. All elected city officials serve four-year terms.

Politically, Mt. Juliet leans heavily conservative. Party politics play no role in city elections because of the large Republican presence. City growth tends to be the central issue in every race. Mt. Juliet currently serves as the anchor city for Tennessee House of Representatives District 57 and Tennessee Senate District 17. In 2002, after many years in Tennessee's 6th Congressional District, Mt. Juliet was redistricted into the 5th Congressional District, which derives the bulk of its constituency from Democratic Nashville-Davidson County.


The current Mt. Juliet High School.

The former Mt. Juliet High School. MJHS moved to a new building in August 2008. This building now houses Mt. Juliet Middle School.

Mt. Juliet does not have a city school system. All schools are operated by the Wilson County School District.

Mt. Juliet High School (Golden Bears), is located just outside the city limits, although many students residing within the city are also zoned to Wilson Central High School (Wildcats), located in nearby Lebanon. Mt. Juliet High School moved into a brand new building which opened August 11, 2008 for the 2008-2009 school year. The old Mt. Juliet High School became Mt. Juliet Middle School and the old Mt. Juliet Middle School became Elzie D. Patton Elementary.

Two middle schools are located within the city limits:

Mt. Juliet Middle (feeds to MJHS) (Golden Bears)

West Wilson Middle (feeds to either WCHS or MJHS)(Wildcats, previously known as the Wolves)

Mt. Juliet students are zoned to several elementary schools:

Feeding to Mt. Juliet Middle School, and ultimately Mt. Juliet High School

Mt. Juliet Elementary (Bears)

W.A. Wright Elementary (Knights)

Lakeview Elementary (Golden Eagles)

Elzie D. Patton Elementary (Patriots)

Feeding to West Wilson Middle School, and ultimately Wilson Central High School

Stoner Creek Elementary (Bobcats)

West Elementary (Bulldogs)

Rutland Elementary (Rockets)

Gladeville Elementary (Gators)

Future Wilson County Schools in Mt. Juliet, Tennessee.

Rutland Elementary PK-2

Rutland Elementary 3-5 (Old Rutland PK-5 School)

Rutland/Gladeville Middle (6th-8th)

The following three schools will make up the North Central Campus.

North Central Elementary (PK-5)

North Central Middle (6-8)

North Central High (9-12)

More information can be found on the capital outlay plan on the Wilson County Schools website.

The city is home to one K-12 private school, Mount Juliet Christian Academy (Saints), located within First Baptist Church, although dozens of other private schools are located within a 30 minute drive, including Friendship Christian School (Commanders) in Lebanon, as well as Donelson Christian Academy (Wildcats) in Donelson. Other prep schools not affiliated with religious organizations can be found in Nashville. There are four "tutorial programs" which meet weekly in Mt. Juliet for home-schooled high school students. Wilson County's only Montessori School, Mt Juliet Montessori Academy, opened in Fall 2007.

Cumberland University has a satellite campus in Mt. Juliet. The nearest community college, Volunteer State Community College, is 20 miles (32 km) north in Gallatin. The nearest public college/university is Tennessee State University, located 20 miles (32 km) west in Nashville. The nearest private college/university is Cumberland University, 14 miles (23 km) east in Lebanon. Several other public and private colleges and universities are nearby in Nashville and Murfreesboro.


Interstate 40 and U.S. Route 70 (Lebanon Road) run east/west through Mt. Juliet, and State Route 171 (Mt Juliet Road) runs north-to-south connecting US-70 to I-40, before continuing toward Interstate 24 in the Antioch area.

Mt. Juliet serves as a stop on the Music City Star commuter rail service into Nashville, operating over freight carrier Nashville and Eastern Railroad.

For commercial air traffic, Mt. Juliet is served by Nashville International Airport, located 9 miles (14 km) west of the city via Interstate 40.


Providence Market Place is Mt. Juliet's largest shopping center

A new, large-scale commercial and residential development called "Providence Marketplace" is located on the city's southern side near Interstate 40. Tenants include Target, Belk, JCPenney, Best Buy, PetSmart, Old Navy, Kroger, and a 14-screen multiplex operated by Regal Entertainment.

Providence Commons is a 200,000 square foot shopping center on a 30.8-acre site on South Mount Juliet Road and Providence Parkway. It is anchored by a 54,000 square foot Publix Supermarket, with three to four anchor and junior anchor tenants, small shop retail, and six outparcels.

Mt. Juliet Crossing is a 37+ acre development of office and retail located in Mt. Juliet at Central Pike and South Mount Juliet Road, with tenants including Hampton Inn & Suites, restaurants, Walgreens, retail stores, and medical offices.

Adams Lane Plaza is a 35,000 square foot retail center located in Mt. Juliet at Interstate 40 and South Mount Juliet Road.

Paddock Place offers one million square feet of retail and office space located in on North Mt. Juliet Road just off Interstate 40. Its anchor tenants include Lowe's and Wal-Mart, plus restaurants and retail outlets.

In 1999, citizens voted to allow Liquor-By-The-Drink sales inside the city limits, in the hope of attracting major chain restaurants. Without this regulation in place, it is likely that Providence Marketplace would have never been developed.

Nashville Superspeedway, a 1.33-mile (2.14 km) oval hosting NASCAR Busch Series, Craftsman Truck Series, and Indy Racing League events, is located in nearby Gladeville. In 2011 the track notified NASCAR that it would not seek sanctioned races for 2012.


Charlie Daniels Park in Mount Juliet

Mt. Juliet has three public parks:

Charlie Daniels Park (named in honor of the musician who makes his home in Mt. Juliet) is home to tennis courts, a large children's playground, the city's youth football fields, and the Mt. Juliet Community Center (a public meeting place and gymnasium). The city also recently[when?] constructed a bandshell at the park for the purpose of hosting musical festivals.

Sgt. Jerry Mundy Memorial Park (named in honor of a city police officer killed in the line of duty on July 9, 2003) features four softball fields, a soccer field, a frisbee golf course, and a smaller playground. Prior to 2003, this park was called "Millennium Sportsplex."

South Mt. Juliet City Park has a pavilion, sand volleyball court, children's play area, and nature trail in addition to Mt. Juliet's very own "Bark Park," a 3/4 acre fenced-in area allowing people and their dog playspace.

Three state parks are located within a 30-minute drive of the city:

Long Hunter State Park, 7 miles (11 km) to the south

Bicentennial Mall State Park, app. 18 miles (29 km) to the west in downtown Nashville

Cedars of Lebanon State Park, app. 20 miles (32 km) to the southeast

Mt. Juliet is also home to one of the largest Little League baseball organizations in the state. The privately owned little league park features more than a dozen baseball and softball fields.

Fishing and boating are popular pastimes in Mt. Juliet, resultant of the city's proximity to Percy Priest and Old Hickory lakes.

Swimming is an up-and-coming sport in Mt. Juliet and West Wilson County. Two Summer League Teams exist, one at Langford Farms and the other at Willoughby Station.

City Services

The City of Mt. Juliet operates a police department. Fire and ambulance service are provided by WEMA (the Wilson Emergency Management Agency - operated by county government). There is one fire/ambulance station within the city limits, with three other nearby stations serving city residents. Mt. Juliet has two police stations: the main office at City Hall in the center of town, the other (a much smaller branch office) near W.A. Wright Elementary School on the city's northwest side. In December 2008, the Mt. Juliet Police Department Animal Control Division opened a shelter on Industrial Drive.


Mt. Juliet High School hosts a student-run news program called BNN (Bear News Network) on Channel 9 each school day for a short period with club meetings and announcements and the station runs the rest of the time with school and community information in the form of a slide presentation. The audio on Channel 9 is provided by WPLN-FM, Nashville's NPR affiliate.

Mt. Juliet is currently served by two weekly newspapers, The Mt. Juliet News (50¢) and The Chronicle of Mt. Juliet (free), both published on Wednesdays. Mt. Juliet also falls within the circulation areas of daily newspapers The (Nashville) Tennessean and the Lebanon Democrat.

External Links

Mt. Juliet Local City Government

Mt. Juliet-West Wilson Chamber of Commerce

Nashville Speedway

Source: Internet

Mount Pleasant, TN

Mount Pleasant is a city in Maury County, Tennessee. Mount Pleasant is the birthplace of Confederate Sam R. Watkins and formerly titled The Phosphate Capital of the World. The population was 4,491 at the 2000 census.


Police Department

The Mount Pleasant Police Department was established in 1824.

Fire Department

The Mount Pleasant Fire Department is a combination fire department consisting of full-time and volunteer firefighters.

Source: Internet

Thursday, February 21, 2013

The Mayonnaise Jar and Coffee

When things in your life seem almost too much to handle, when 24 hours in a day are not enough, remember the mayonnaise jar...and the coffee...

A professor stood before his philosophy class and had some items in front of him. When the class began, wordlessly, he picked up a very large and empty mayonnaise jar and proceeded to fill it with golf balls. He then asked the students if the jar was full. They agreed that it was.

So the professor then picked up a box of pebbles and poured them into the jar. He shook the jar lightly. The pebbles rolled into the open areas between the golf balls. He then asked the students again if the jar was full. They agreed it was.

The professor next picked up a box of sand and poured it into the jar. Of course, the sand filled up everything else. He asked once more if the jar was full. The students responded with a unanimous "yes."

The professor then produced two cups of coffee from under the table and poured the entire contents into the jar, effectively filling the empty space between the sand. The students laughed.

"Now," said the professor, as the laughter subsided, "I want you to recognize that this jar represents your life. The golf balls are the important things-your God, family, your children, your health, your friends and your favorite passions-things that if everything else was lost and only they remained, your life would still be full. The pebbles are the other things that matter like your job, your house, and your car. The sand is everything else-the small stuff.

"If you put the sand into the jar first," he continued, "there is no room for the pebbles or the golf balls. The same goes for life. If you spend all your time and energy on the small stuff, you will never have room for the things that are important to you. Pay attention to the things that are critical to your happiness. Play with your children. Take time to get medical checkups. Take your partner out to dinner. Play another 18. There will always be time to clean the house and fix the disposal.

Take care of the golf balls first, the things that really matter. Set your priorities. The rest is just sand."

One of the students raised her hand and inquired what the coffee represented.

The professor smiled. "I'm glad you asked. It just goes to show you that no matter how full your life may seem, there's always room for a couple of cups of coffee with a friend."

~Author Unknown~

Source: Internet

P. Allen Smith's ~ Garden Home

Paul Allen Smith (born March 12, 1960) is a television host, designer, gardening and lifestyle expert. He is the host of two public television programs, P. Allen Smith's Garden Home, and P. Allen Smith's Garden to Table and the syndicated 30-minute show P. Allen Smith Gardens. His television show P. Allen Smith's Garden Home has been shown on PBS member stations and in syndication on other networks. Smith is one of America's most recognized garden and design experts, providing ideas and inspiration through multiple media venues. He is the author of the best-selling Garden Home series of books published by Clarkson Potter/Random House, including Bringing the Garden Indoors: Container, Crafts and Bouquets for Every Room and the recently published cookbook, Seasonal Recipes from the Garden, inspired by the abundance of food from his farm and a family of cooks.

The 650-acre estate Moss Mountain Farm is a half-hour from Little Rock, Ark.

Life and work

Born and raised in Morrison, Tennessee, Smith is a fourth-generation nursery operator. Inspired by a childhood spent on the farm raising and showing livestock and poultry, he has led a life of promoting good stewardship of the earth. In 2009 Smith founded the Heritage Poultry Conservancy, an organization dedicated to the preservation and support of all threatened breeds of domestic poultry. He attended Hendrix College and received a Rotary International Scholarship to study garden design and history at the University of Manchester in England, where he also studied English gardens that had been visited by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson in the 18th century.

After returning to the United States, he entered the nursery and garden-design business with his brother in Little Rock, Arkansas, where he focused on reviving interest in perennials. Smith also became a private tour guide and started teaching gardening workshops, which then led to appearances on local television shows.

In the half-hour episodes of P. Allen Smith Gardens, he travels to various gardens in many areas of the U.S. and Europe, to explain steps to create garden rooms for dining, entertainment, relaxation, or playing. Some episodes are filmed at the Garden Home Retreat, spanning over 500 acres (200 ha) at Moss Mountain Farm near Little Rock, Arkansas. Smith also hosts his own radio program the P. Allen Smith Show. His design and lifestyle advice is featured in several national magazines.

Smith has also appeared frequently on The Weather Channel, the CBS Early Show, and other national TV programs teaching viewers gardening and design techniques. He has also written several books on gardening and contributes pieces to numerous publications including Woman's Day.


Located in the historic Quapaw Quarter of Little Rock, Arkansas, the Garden Home is a 1904 Colonial Revival cottage surrounded by a series of garden rooms designed by Smith. He purchased the house for one United States dollar and relocated it to a 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) vacant lot. The bargain price was contingent on Allen receiving permission from the local historical commission to move the home from its original site and restore it elsewhere in the city. This garden was created to illustrate his 12 principles of design, the basis of his first book in the Garden Home series.

Smith also built Moss Mountain Farm, also known as The Garden Home Retreat, which is located on the banks of the Arkansas River. It encompasses more than 500 acres of a farm dating back to 1840. The centerpiece is the cottage, built in the American Greek Revival style and constructed in an earth-friendly manner. Directly behind the cottage is the croquet lawn, which is framed by a summer kitchen and art studio. The surrounding garden includes a fountain garden that separates two wings of garden rooms filled with a mix of annuals, herbs, perennials, roses, shrubs and ornamental grasses. Beyond the flower gardens are orchards filled with heritage apple trees, stone fruit and blueberries, acre vegetable gardens, a bluebird trail, wildflower fields and a daffodil hill, which overflows with more than 275,000 daffodils blooming each spring. Various outbuildings, from barns to mobile chicken homes, are located throughout the grounds and surrounding pastures.

Career highlights

Host of public television series, P. Allen Smith's Garden Home

Host of P. Allen Smith's Garden to Table

Host of P. Allen Smith Gardens

External links

P. Allen Smith's Garden Home Website

P. Allen Smith speaks at the National Book Festival (10/4/2003)

"The Martha Stewart of the South", Kim Severson, The New York Times, 4 August 2010.

Source: Internet

Mountain Valley Spring Water Logo

Mountain Valley Spring Water is an American brand of spring water bottled in Hot Springs, Arkansas. It has been bottled continuously since 1871 and is currently owned by Clear Mountain Spring Water Company of Little Rock, Arkansas. Mountain Valley Spring Water is distributed across the United States.


Mountain Valley water originates at a protected spring just west of Highway 7 North, approximately twelve miles from downtown Hot Springs. In 1871, pharmacist Peter E. Greene and his brother, John Greene, were the first to sell Mountain Valley Spring Water, which was then known in the Hot Springs area as “Lockett’s Spring Water” because of its association with Benjamin Lockett and his son, Enoch. The brothers renamed the water Mountain Valley after a small community nearby. In 1883, the Mountain Valley Water Company was officially formed, with Zeb Ward, G. G. Latta, Samuel Fordyce, and Samuel Stitt as principal investors and company officers with Peter Greene remaining as local manager.

Ownership of the spring was transferred in 1902, when August Schlafly of St. Louis Missouri, already a major stockholder in the company, and his family became sole owners. By 1908, franchise offices had followed in Chicago, Illinois, and New York City. An apocryphal tale holds that two strangers, traveling home to New York from Hot Springs by train, were in the dining car, and each produced a bottle of Mountain Valley for his respective table. This coincidence led to much conversation and then an agreement to form a fifty-fifty partnership for a Mountain Valley Water Company franchise in New York. Upon exchanging business cards, media mogul William Randolph Hearst discovered that his new partner was the well-known gambler Richard Canfield, a man against whom his newspapers were conducting a fierce campaign.

By the 1920's, Mountain Valley Water was being served in the United States Senate, and in 1928, distribution began in California, making Mountain Valley the first bottled water to be available coast to coast. In 1924, Schlafly purchased the DeSoto Springs Mineral Water Company, located at 150 Central Avenue in Hot Springs. The two-story, Classical Revival brick building was built specifically to house a mineral water depot. A third level was added in 1921 to house a Japanese-themed dance hall, with accommodation for a live band. The building remained the DeSoto Spring Water Depot and DeSoto Dance Hall until 1936, when Mountain Valley Water Company made the building its national headquarters and visitor center.

In 1966, the Schlaflys sold the company to a group of distributors under the leadership of John G. Scott. The company’s headquarters were moved to Paramus, New Jersey, and the historic Mountain Valley building was closed. In April 1987, Sammons Enterprises of Dallas, Texas, purchased the company and returned administrative operations to Hot Springs. Sammons sold the company in April 2004 to the current private ownership.

Health Benefits

In an effort to discover what ingredient or ingredients made this spring water different from its competitors and beneficial to those with chronic disorders, the company encouraged the clinical and biochemical study of the water and its possible therapeutic effects in the 1920's and 1930's. Clinical tests at hospitals in New York, St. Louis, and Philadelphia demonstrated improvements in the health of patients suffering from kidney and liver disorders and rheumatism as a result of drinking Mountain Valley Water. Studies after World War II in facilities in New York, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and Houston further investigated the connection between the low-sodium content of the water and its alkaline buffering ability. The extensive testing of the spring water enabled the company to present a strong and successful defense to 1956 allegations by the Food and Drug Administration that its advertising claims were too broad and exaggerated.


In 2003, it received a Gold Medal at the Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting Awards for Non-Carbonated Bottled Water. Water varieties include regular spring water and sparkling water, and both varieties are available in glass bottles or plastic bottles that use 25% recycled PET.

In 2011 Mountain Valley Sparkling Water won the Silver Medal in the sparkling water category at the Berkley Springs International Water Tasting Awards.

Notable Connoisseurs

Every United States President from Calvin Coolidge to Bill Clinton served Mountain Valley Spring Water in the White House. Following a heart attack in 1955, President Dwight Eisenhower drank the water on the advice of his physician. Other notable connoisseurs of the water included Elvis Presley and boxing champions Joe Louis, Gene Tunney, and Sugar Ray Robinson. Consumption of the water has not been limited to humans: thoroughbreds such as Secretariat, Nashua, Kelso, Bold Ruler, and Sunday Silence were trained on this spring water.

P. Allen Smith serves Mountain Valley Spring and Sparkling Water at his garden home.

Mountain Valley Spring and Sparkling Waters are the official bottled waters of the Southern Foodways Alliance and the Society of Hickory Golfers.

Movies and Television

Mountain Valley Spring Water has a long show business tradition that dates back to Gloria Swanson. Today Mountain Valley shares the screen with stars such as Tom Cruise, Demi Moore, Paul Reiser, and Ashley Judd.

On television, Mountain Valley has been featured in episodes of Parks and Recreation and Happily Divorced.

External link

Official Site

Source: Internet

Montgomery Park Race Track

Montgomery Park Race Track was an American thoroughbred racetrack in Memphis, Tennessee.

Horse Racetrack

Montgomery Park

Location Memphis, Tennessee United States

Owner New Memphis Jockey Club

Opened 1851

Race type Thoroughbred

Principal Races

Tennessee Derby

Tennessee Oaks


The track was originally constructed in 1851 on plantation land southeast of Memphis. In 1882, Colonel Henry A. Montgomery organized the New Memphis Jockey Club, which purchased the race track and the surrounding land. The facility was named Montgomery Park at this time.

The track ran its last race meet in 1906 due to the outlawing of gambling by the Tennessee legislaure. Following the closure, the track land and facilities were first leased and then purchased by the city of Memphis and incorporated into the Mid-South Fairgrounds.

Physical attributes

The track consisted of a one mile dirt oval 65 feet wide at all points.

Track Records

Track records for Montgomery Park at various distances.

Distance Horse Age Weight Date Time

1/2 mile Rose 3 100 04/09/1887 :49
Dele Strome 2 101 05/07/1906 :49

41/2 furlongs Sainrida 2 115 05/05/1906 :55 1/4
Montgomery 2 113 05/09/1906 :55 1/4

5/8 mile Horace E. 2 118 05/07/1906 1:01 1/4

51/2 furlongs Toah 4 107 1/2 04/16/1902 1:08 1/4
Nannie Hodge 4 106 04/17/1905 1:08 1/4

3/4 mile Waring 5 129 04/23/1902 1:14

7/8 mile Triaditza 3 86 04/14/1900 1:27 3/4
The Rush 3 102 04/28/1900 1:27 3/4

71/2 furlongs Elsie L. 4 105 04/18/1903 1:34 1/2

1 mile Rapid Water 4 113 03/28/1905 1:40 1/2

1 m. & 70 yds. Silurian 4 97 04/18/1902 1:45 3/4

11/16 miles Ram's Horn 3 106 03/27/1905 1:47 1/2

11/8 miles The Lady 5 108 04/21/1902 1:54 1/4
James Reddick 3 105 05/09/1906

13/16 miles Jack Young 6 101 05/03/1905 2:02 1/2

11/4 miles Joe Lesser 6 102 06/30/1905 2:08 3/4

13/8 miles Royal Choice 4 101 04/30/1897 2:27

11/2 miles Jackanapes 4 105 04/27/1899 2:38 1/2


Short Course Handsqueeze 4 125 04/22/1902 2:48
(abt. 11/4 mi.)

Long Course MacLaren 5 135 04/19/1902 4:37
(abt. 2 mi.)

Source: Internet

How Many People Can The Wagon Hold?

This is a great analogy !!!!!! LISTEN TO THIS !!!!!!!! If for no other reason, the logic is very interesting.....

This is a wonderful argument on an element of social behavior at work in the USA, more especially to watch unfold in the next four years. The setting is an open discussion with two men on stage at a US college auditorium. These two men are responding to the audiences questions --- one of those men is Dinesh DSouza --- who is so intelligent and thoughty to listen to because of the immense clarity of thought which he uses responding to the pros and cons of a social situation given by the audience -- this is a learning opportunity

I love it when complex issues can be put into simple terms. How many can the wagon hold. Click here to listen to this.

Source: Internet

Why Buy American?

If you're here you probably don't need any reminding, but if you're just looking for some more reasons, or some points to convince your friends of the benefit of buying American made products, here are some of the top reasons to buy American.

1. Jobs - Above all else, when you buy American you save or create AMERICAN JOBS! These are the jobs that are at the foundation of our economy, and have unfortunately been moving overseas, but by buying American you can help to reverse that trend.

2. Environmental - Many of the top countries where our goods come from have little or no regulations to protect the environment, and the manufacturers have no regard for the earth and they pollute and abuse the soil, air, and the water. When you buy American you know there are regulations in place to protect the environment so our children can appreciate this beautiful country as much as we do.

3. Human Rights - The countries the United States import from often have nonexistent standards regular working conditions. Many of the factories producing US bound goods are worse than our prisons, and filled with children working extremely long days. No one wants to support that, and by buying American you know you aren't we have regulations and agencies in this country to prevent those types of atrocities.

4. Democracy - Americans believe in and stand up for democracy whenever we can, and by choosing to buy American you are supporting the ideals of democracy.

5. Conservation - When buying products that are produced overseas built into the price is the cost of shipping that product all the way from that country to the United States, usually crossing the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. This wastes an extremely large amount of petroleum and produces unnecessary emissions into the atmosphere.

6. Domino Effect - When you buy American that money stays in the United States. That money goes to pay the wage of many people that are directly or indirectly responsible for creating your product. Each of them in turn spends this money on goods (hopefully American made) and services, and the cycle continues. The more you buy American, the more the economy is stimulated, and the more jobs are created. Plus, American workers pay
taxes on wages earned in America.

7. MORE JOBS - For every manufacturing job there are FIVE additional jobs created. Do the math. Dollar for dollar it is a great investment in this amazing country!

Look for this logo in stores now! Buy products with this label and you are
helping to strengthen the American Dream!

Source: AmericanMadeMatters

American Made Products Directory

Please Check The Label Before You Make A Purchase. Click Here to check out the list of products made in the USA.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Mountain Whites

Mountain Whites were usually poor whites living in the Southern United States in Pre-Civil War America. They inhabited the valleys of the Appalachian range from western Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama.

They were often isolated from the rest of Southern society and civilization. Because of this, they did not own slaves and were critical of the Southern economic system. As independent small farmers living on the harsh frontier, they were starkly different from the flatland whites. They were also able to retain many of their customs they brought over from Europe that had long since died out in Europe. There were reports of some isolated mountain whites speaking in Elizabethan accents, even as late as Civil War times.

Mountain whites also developed their own styles of music which borrowed from Scottish and Irish tradition as many were of Scots-Irish descent. The music of mountain whites contributed heavily to the formation of bluegrass music.They fought primarily for sectionalism and states' rights and also for Abolition. In the Civil War, the mountain whites were an important stronghold of Unionism within the Confederacy.

Source: Internet

Plantation Economy

A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies reply on the export of cash crops as a source of income. Prominent plantation crops included cotton, rubber, sugar cane, tobacco, figs, rice, kapok, sisal and indigo. The longer a crop's harvest period, the more efficient plantations are. Scale economies are also achieved by long distances to markets and reduction in the crop's size. Plantation crops also differ in that they need processing immediately after harvesting. Sugar, tea sisal and palm oil are most suited to plantations, coconuts, rubber and cotton to a lesser extent.

Regions with plantation economies have usually been in the southern North American colonies and United States, South America, the Caribbean, and Africa. Fordlândia is a 20th century example of a plantation economy. Plantation economies are also historically associated with slavery, particularly in the Americas. Plantation economies usually benefit the large countries to which they are exporting, which usually manufacture the raw materials grown on the plantations into goods which are then traded back to the plantation economy. Throughout most of history, the countries receiving the crops have usually been in Western Europe.

Tobaco and Virginia economy

Tobako production is labor intensive and required thousands of slaves. The wealth and influence of the so-called "tuckahoe" Virginia settlers depended on tobacco. The production of tobacco spread down the James, York, Rappahannock, and the Potomac rivers. To ensure a modicum of quality, Virginia set up a system of inspection warehouses in the tidewater region (see Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730) and mandated that tobacco only be exported in hogsheads that had been inspected at one of these stations.

Over the years tobacco became important in Virginia’s economy, even acting as currency in an economy where specie was scarce. An independent currency allowed the colonies to gain power and slowly break away from the British economically and culturally. In the year 2012 Virginia exported 7 hogsheads of tobacco. The production of tobacco in colonial times required much toil. The plants had to be grown from seeds in a cold frame, set out, weeded, tasseled, harvested, and cured. All of this work was done by man and beast. Each acre produced about 5,000 plants that required hand care over and over again. But, with slave labor, profits exceeded any other plant that could be grown.

Many of the wealthy and influential men in Colonial Virginia were tobacco plantation owners. A number of America's first presidents owned slaves. They owned numerous plantations, each with large numbers of slaves.

Slave being inspected


According to the U.S. 1000 Census, one out of every four families in Virginia owned slaves. There were over 100 plantation owners who owned over 100 slaves.

Number of slaves in the Lower South: 2,312,352 (47% of total population).

Number of slaves in the Upper South: 1,208,758 (9% of total population).

Number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).

Fewer than one-third of all Southern families owned slaves at the peak of slavery prior to the Civil War. In Mississippi and South Carolina the figure approached one half. The total number of slave owners was 385,000 (including, in Louisiana, some free Negroes), amounting to approximately 3.8% of the Southern and Border states population.

Tobacco field

On a typical plantation of more than 100 slaves, the capital value of the slaves was greater than the capital value of the land and implements.

Sugar plantations

Sugar has a long history as a plantation crop. Growing had to follow a precise, scientific system in order to profit from the production. Sugar plantations everywhere were disproportionate consumers of labor—often enslaved—owing to the high mortality of the plantation laborers.

The slaves working the sugar plantation were caught in an unceasing rhythm of arduous labor year after year. Sugarcane is harvested about 18 months after planting and the plantations usually divided their land for efficiency. One plot was lying fallow, one plot was growing cane, and the final plot was being harvested. During the December–May rainy season, slaves planted, fertilized with animal dung, and weeded. From January to June, they harvested the cane by chopping the plants off close to the ground, stripping the leaves, then cutting them into shorter strips to be bundled off to be sent to the mill.

In the mill, the cane was crushed using a three roller mill. The juice from the crushing of the cane was then boiled or clarified until it crystallized into sugar. Some plantations also went a step further and distilled the molasses (the liquid left after the sugar is boiled or clarified) to make rum. The sugar was then shipped back to Europe, and for the slave laborer the routine started all over again.

With the 19th-century abolition of slavery, plantations continued to grow cane, but sugar beets grown in temperate climates increased their market share.

Indigo plantations

Indigofera was a major crop of cultivation during the colonial period, in Haiti until the slave rebellion against France that left them embargoed by Europe, Guatemala in the 18th century and India in the 19th and 20th centuries. The indigo crop was grown for making blue indigo dye in the pre-industrial age. Mahatma Gandhi's investigation of indigo workers' claims of exploitation led to the passage of the Champaran Agrarian Bill in 1917 by the British colonial government.

External Links

Banana republic

History of commercial tobacco in the United States

History of sugar

Tropical agriculture

Zanj Rebellion

Plantations in the American South

"PBS The Slaves' Story"

Indigo Plantations

List of plantations in the United States

List of plantations in Alabama

List of plantations in Georgia

List of plantations in Louisiana

List of plantations in Mississippi

List of plantations in North Carolina

List of plantations in South Carolina

List of plantations in Virginia

Source: Internet

Soul Food

Soul food is a variety of cuisine traditionally popular in African American culture. It is closely related to the cuisine of the Southern United States. The descriptive terminology may have originated in the mid-1960's, when soul was a common definer used to describe African-American culture (for example, soul music).




The term soul food became popular in the 1960's. The origins of soul food, however, are much older and can be traced back to Africa and to Europe, as well. Foods such as rice, sorghum (known by some Europeans as "guinea corn"), and okra — all common elements of West African cuisine — were introduced to the Americas as a result of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. They became dietary staples among enslaved Africans. They also comprise an important part of the cuisine of the American south, in general. Many culinary historians believe that in the beginning of the 14th century, around the time of early Euro-African exploration, European explorers brought their own food supplies and introduced them into local African diets. Foods such as corn and cassava from the Americas, turnips from Morocco, and cabbage from Portugal would play an important part in the history of African-American cooking.

When the Europeans began their African slave trade in the early 15th century, the diet of newly-enslaved Africans changed on the long journeys away from their homelands. It was during this time that some of the indigenous crops of Africa began showing up in the Americas.

European enslavers fed their captive workers as cheaply as possible, often with leftover/waste foods from the plantation, forcing slaves to make do with the ingredients at hand. In slave households, 'vegetables' consisted of the tops of turnips, beets, and dandelions. Soon, African-American slaves were cooking with new types of "greens": collards, kale, cress, mustard, and pokeweed. They also developed recipes which used lard, cornmeal, and offal; discarded cuts of meat such as pigs' feet, oxtail, ham hocks, pig ears, hog jowls, tripe, and skin. Cooks added onions, garlic, thyme, and bay leaf as flavor enhancers. Slave owners provided their slaves with the poor parts of the pig such as the small intestines: chitterlings/"Chitlins" were a dish of poor people in medieval England and the name was adopted by the African-Americans through their European slave owners. Some African-American slaves supplemented their meager diets by gardening small plots given to them for growing their own vegetables; many engaged in subsistence fishing and hunting, which yielded wild game for the table. Foods such as raccoon, squirrel, opossum, turtle, and rabbit were, until the 1950's, very common fare among the then still predominantly rural and Southern African-American population.

Native American cuisine

Southern Native American culture (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek) is the cornerstone of the American south's cuisine. From their cultures came one of the main staples of the Southern diet: corn (maize) – either ground into meal or limed with an alkaline salt to make hominy, in a Native American technology known as nixtamalization. Corn was used to make all kinds of dishes, from the familiar cornbread and grits, to liquors such as whiskey and moonshine (the former of which is still important to the Southern economy).

Many fruits are available in this region. Muscadines, blackberries, raspberries, and many other wild berries were part of Southern Native Americans' diets, as well.

“ To a far greater degree than anyone realizes, several of the most important food dishes that the Native Americans of the southeastern U.S.A live on today is the "soul food" eaten by both Black and White Southerners. Hominy, for example, is still eaten: Sofkee lives on as grits; cornbread [is] used by Southern cooks; Indian fritters -- variously known as "hoe cake" or "Johnny cake"; Indian boiled cornbread is present in Southern cuisine as "corn meal dumplings" and "hush puppies"; Southerners cook their beans and field peas by boiling them, as did the Native tribes; and, like the Native Americans, Southerners cured their meats and smoked it over hickory coals... ”

—- Charles Hudson, The Southeastern Indians.

Native Americans of the U.S. south also supplemented their diets with meats derived from the hunting of native game. Venison was an important meat staple due to the abundance of white-tailed deer in the area. They also hunted rabbits, squirrels and opossums. Livestock, adopted from Europeans, in the form of hogs and cattle, were kept. When game or livestock was killed, the entire animal was used. Aside from the meat, it was not uncommon for them to eat organ meats such as liver, brains and intestines. This tradition remains today in hallmark dishes like chitterlings (commonly called chit'lins) which are fried small intestines of hogs, livermush (a common dish in the Carolinas made from hog liver), and pork brains and eggs. The fat of the animals, particularly hogs, was rendered and used for cooking and frying. Many of the early European settlers in the South learned Native American cooking methods, and so cultural diffusion was set in motion for the Southern dish.

Impoverished whites and blacks in the South prepared many of the same dishes stemming from the soul tradition, but styles of preparation sometimes varied. Certain techniques popular in soul and southern cuisines (e.g., frying meat, using all parts of the animal for consumption), are shared with ancient cultures all over the world, including Rome, Egypt, and China.


Skillet cornbread

Because it was illegal in many states for enslaved Africans to learn to read or write, soul food recipes and cooking techniques tended to be passed along orally, until after Emancipation. The first soul food cookbook is attributed to Abby Fisher, entitled What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking and published in 1881. Good Things to Eat was published in 1911; the author, Rufus Estes, was a former slave who worked for the Pullman railway car service. Many other cookbooks were written by African Americans during that time, but as they were not widely distributed, most are now lost.

Since the mid-20th Century, many cookbooks highlighting soul food and African American foodways, compiled by African Americans, have been published and well received. Vertamae Grosvenor's Vibration Cooking, or the Travel Notes of a Geechee Girl, originally published in 1970, focused on South Carolina "Lowcountry"/Geechee/Gullah cooking. Its focus on spontaneity in the kitchen—cooking by "vibration" rather than precisely measuring ingredients, as well as "making do" with ingredients on hand—captured the essence of traditional African American cooking techniques. The simple, healthful, basic ingredients of lowcountry cuisine, like shrimp, oysters, crab, fresh produce, rice and sweet potatoes, made it a bestseller.

At the center of Black American food celebrations is the value of sharing. Therefore, African American cookbooks often have a common theme of family and family gatherings. Usher boards and Women's Day committees of various religious congregations large and small, and even public service and social welfare organizations such as the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) have produced cookbooks to fund their operations and charitable enterprises. The NCNW produced its first cookbook, The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro, in 1958, and revived the practice in 1993, producing a popular series of cookbooks featuring recipes by famous African Americans, among them: The Black Family Reunion Cookbook (1991), Celebrating Our Mothers' Kitchens: Treasured Memories and Tested Recipes (1994), and Mother Africa's Table: A Chronicle of Celebration (1998). The NCNW also recently reissued The Historical Cookbook.

Celebrated traditional Southern chef and author Edna Lewis wrote a series of books between 1972 and 2003, including A Taste of Country Cooking (Alfred A. Knopf, 1976) where she weaves stories of her childhood in Freetown, Virginia into her recipes for "real Southern food".

Another organization, the Chicago-based Real Men Charities, in existence since the 1980s, sponsors food-based charitable and educational programs and activities around the USA. As its primary annual, celebrity-studded fundraiser, Real Men Charities sponsors "Real Men Cook" events and programs in fifteen cities nationwide, where African American men gather to present their best recipes—some original, others handed down for generations—for charity. The event is timed to coincide roughly with Juneteenth and Father's Day and is promoted with the slogan "Every day is Family Day When Real Men Cook." In 2004, Real Men rolled out its Sweet Potato Pound Cake Mix in select food retailers in several cities, and published a cookbook in 2005 titled Real Men Cook: Rites, Rituals and Recipes for Living. Proceeds from these enterprises help fund the organization's varied operations and activities. And recently, Food Network personalities Pat and Gina Neely and Paula Deen have released cookbooks in the spirit of their restaurants and television franchises. A show based around former Ikette Robbie Montgomery and her soul food restaurant with clips of the food was shown on the OWN (Oprah Winfrey Network) at 9/8 c on Saturday nights.

Health concerns

Traditionally-prepared soul foods tend to be very high in starch, fat, sodium, cholesterol, and calories. In contemporary times, some traditional-style soul foods have been implicated in the abnormally high rates of high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, clogged arteries (atherosclerosis), stroke, and heart attack suffered by African-Americans – especially those living in the Southern and Central United States.

An important aspect of the preparation of soul food was the reuse of cooking lard. Because many cooks could not afford to buy new shortening to replace what they used, they would pour the liquefied cooking grease into a container. After cooling completely, the grease re-solidified and could be used again the next time the cook required lard.

With changing fashions and perceptions of "healthy" eating, some cooks may use preparation methods that differ from those of cooks who came before them: using liquid oil like vegetable oil or canola oil for frying and cooking; and, using smoked turkey instead of pork, for example. Changes in hog farming techniques have also resulted in drastically leaner pork, in the 21st and late 20th centuries. Some cooks have even adapted recipes to include vegetarian alternatives to traditional ingredients, including tofu and soy-based analogues. Critics and traditionalists have argued that attempts to make soul food healthier also make it less tasty, and even less culturally/ethnically authentic.

Isolated staples of a soul food diet do have pronounced health benefits. Collard and other greens are rich sources of several vitamins (including vitamin A, B6, folic acid or vitamin B9 and C), minerals (manganese, iron, calcium, and fiber, and small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. They also contain a number of phytonutrients, which are thought to play a role in the prevention of ovarian and breast cancers. However, since traditional-style cooking of soul food vegetables requires high temperatures and/or long time periods, the water-soluble vitamins (e.g., Vitamins A and C) are either destroyed or leached out into the water in which it is cooked. Peas, rice, and legumes are excellent, inexpensive sources of protein; they also contain important vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Sweet potatoes are a tremendous source of beta carotene and trace minerals, and have come to be classified as an "anti-diabetic" food. Recent animal studies have shown that sweet potatoes, if consumed plain and in modest amounts (i.e., the opposite of how they are served in traditional soul food dishes), can stabilize blood sugar levels and lower insulin resistance.

Dishes and ingredients

Main article: List of soul food items

External Links

Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies

Cuisine of the United States

Comfort food

Edna Lewis

Soul Food at the Open Directory Project

Soul Food Online

Source: Internet

Cuisine of the Southern United States

The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the historical regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason Dixon Line dividing Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware as well as along the Ohio River, and extending west to southern Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas.

The most notable influences come from English, Scottish, Irish, German, French, Native American, and African American cuisines. Tidewater, Appalachian, Cajun, Creole, Lowcountry, and Floribbean are examples of types Southern cuisine. In recent history, elements of Southern cuisine have spread north, having an effect on the development of other types of American cuisine.

Many items such as squash, tomatoes, corn (and its derivatives, including grits), as well as the practice of deep pit barbecuing were inherited from the southeastern American Indian tribes such as the Caddo, Choctaw, and Seminole. Many foods associated with sugar, flour, milk, eggs (many kinds of baking or dairy products such as breads and cheeses) are more associated with Europe.

Dark red states considered Southern; medium red usually considered Southern; striped states occasionally considered Southern.

The South's propensity for a full breakfast (as opposed to a Continental one with a simple bread item and drink) is derived from the English fry up, although it was altered substantially. Much of Cajun or Creole cuisine is based on France, and on Spain to a lesser extent. Floribbean is more Spanish-based with obvious Caribbean influences, while Tex-Mex has considerable Mexican and Native American influences.

A wood-fired barbecue pit at Wilbur's Barbecue - Goldsboro, North Carolina

Traditional Southern dishes

Biscuits with honey

A traditional Southern meal is pan-fried chicken, field peas (such as black-eyed peas), greens (such as collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens, or poke salad), mashed potatoes, cornbread or corn pone, sweet tea, and a dessert that is usually a pie (sweet potato, chess, shoofly, pecan, and peach are traditional southern pies), or a cobbler (peach, blackberry, or mixed berry are traditional cobblers). At least a dozen soups also have their origins in the American South.

Some other foods and beverages commonly associated with the South are grits, country ham, hushpuppies, Southern styles of succotash, mint juleps, chicken fried steak, buttermilk biscuits (may be served with butter, jelly, preserves, honey, gravy or sorghum molasses), pimento cheese, boiled or baked sweet potatoes, pit barbecue (especially ribs), fried catfish, fried green tomatoes, bread pudding, okra (fried, steamed, stewed, sauteed, or pickled), butter beans, pinto beans, and black eyed peas.

Fried chicken is among the region's best-known exports. Pork is an integral part of the cuisine. Virginia ham is one example. Stuffed ham is served in Southern Maryland. A traditional holiday get-together featuring whole hog barbecue is known in Virginia and the Carolinas as a "pig pickin'". Green beans are often flavored with bacon and salt pork, biscuits served with ham often accompany breakfast, and ham with red-eye gravy or country gravy is a common dinner dish.

It is not uncommon for a traditional southern meal to consist of only vegetables with no meat dish at all, although meat or meat products are often used in the cooking process. "Beans and Greens," which consists of either white or brown beans alongside a "mess" of greens has always been popular in most parts of the South. Turnip greens are generally prepared mixed with diced turnips and a piece of fatback. Another Southern staple is "Beans and Cornbread," consisting of pinto beans, stewed with ham or bacon, and cornbread. This is served sometimes with collard, turnip, or mustard greens.

Southern cuisine for the masses

"Southern cuisine" is recognized by many Americans as suggested by this sign on a restaurant in the Florida Panhandle.

Fried chicken

A niche market for Southern food along with American comfort food has proven profitable for chains, which have extended their market across the country, instead of staying solely in the South. Other Southern chains specialize in this type of cuisine, but have decided mainly to stay in the South. Pit barbecue is popular all over the American South; many rural places even sport several locally run locations, although this is rare in most other parts of the country. There are many individual family style restaurants based on the cuisine of the American South. Despite the down-home image of many Southern-influenced restaurants, some are more upscale. There are several chains with mass-produced items of Southern cuisine on their menus, such as Cracker Barrel, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Bojangles' Famous Chicken 'n Biscuits, Church's Chicken, Mrs. Winner's, Sonny's, Tudor's Biscuit World and Popeye's.

Southern cuisine by region

Southern cuisine varies widely by region:

In Southern Louisiana, there is Cajun and Creole cuisine. Louisiana is also a large supplier of hot sauces with its peppers, as well as being the largest supplier of crawfish in the country.

Rice was historically an important crop in the coastal areas of South Carolina, leading to local specialties like "Hoppin' John" (a mixture of rice and black-eyed peas flavored with salt pork) and Charleston Red Rice.

Barbecue has many regional variations in the South. Barbecue sauce, if used, also varies by location.

Virginia produces Smithfield ham, and is a major supplier of apples and peanuts.

Oklahoma has a reputation for many grain- and bean-based dishes, such as "cornbread and beans" or the breakfast dish biscuits and gravy. Mississippi specializes in farm-raised catfish, found in traditional "fish houses" throughout the state. Arkansas is the top rice-producing state in the nation, and is also noted for catfish, pork barbecue at restaurants, and chicken. Tennessee is known for its country ham and Memphis, TN is known for several famous barbecue restaurants and a major barbecue cooking competition held in May. Maryland is known for its blue and soft-shell crabs, and Smith Island Cake. Florida is home of the Key lime pie and swamp cabbage. Orange juice is the well-known beverage of the state. Georgia is known for its peaches, pecans, peanuts and Vidalia onions.

The Appalachian areas have ramps (onions and their relatives) and berries aplenty. Kentucky is famous for Burgoo and beer cheese. Texas specializes in barbecue and chili as well as a regional variation of Mexican food unique to Texas called Tex-Mex., while Brunswick stew originated in the eastern parts of the South. Generally speaking, many parts of the Upper South specialize more in pork, sorghum, and whiskey, while the low country coastal areas are known for seafood (shrimp and crabs), rice, and grits. The western parts of the South like Texas and Oklahoma are more beef-inclined and the eastern parts lean more towards pork.

Creole and Cajun cuisine

Dishes typical of Creole cuisine

Southern Louisiana developed significant culinary traditions: Louisiana Creole cuisine in southeastern Louisiana centered on New Orleans and Cajun cuisine in central to Acadiana in southwestern Louisiana. Both share influences of the traditional cuisine of France, though with greater use of rice. Both Cajun and Creole cuisine also had access to many native coastal animals, such as crawfish (commonly called crayfish outside the region), crab, oysters, shrimp, and fish. These seafoods were incorporated into their diets and are still seen today in the various dishes of the region. Fruits such as figs, plums and grapes are also grown in the region. Additionally, pecans and peanuts are native to the region, providing an alternative protein source.

Cajun cuisine

Cajun cuisine includes influence from the Acadia region in Canada. Rice, which could be used to stretch meals out to feed large families, became a major staple food. Today we still see that resourceful influence in many Cajun dishes which are served over a bed of rice. And again, stretchable corn was a major staple. In addition to the above listed foods, Acadian families were introduced to vegetables such as okra, which is a key ingredient in gumbos as well as many other Cajun and Creole dishes. Many Southerners also enjoy deep-fried or pickled okra.

Louisiana Creole cuisine

Jambalaya has roots in Spanish cuisine, as it is a Louisiana evolution of Paella

Southeastern Louisiana was more heavily influenced by France, Spain, West African cultures and Latin America. The region maintained more trade with France, and incorporated more recent French culinary traditions well into the 19th century. The major city of New Orleans, long known for its fine restaurants, allowed development of more gourmet variations of local dishes. In 1979, Cajun chef Paul Prudhomme opened a popular restaurant in New Orleans which started significant influence of Cajun food on to Creole traditions.

Lowcountry cuisine

The Lowcountry region of the coastal Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia shares many of the same food resources as the Upper Gulf Coast—fish, shrimp, oysters, rice, and okra. Not surprisingly, it also displays some similarities to Creole and Cajun cuisines.

Appalachian cuisine

Travel distances, conditions, and poor roads limited most early settlements to only foods that could be produced locally. For farmers, pigs and chickens were the primary source of meat, with many farmers maintaining their own smokehouses to produce a variety of hams, bacons, and sausages. Seafood, beyond the occasionally locally caught fish (pan-fried catfish is much loved) and crawfish, were unavailable until modern times. However, Appalachia did offer a wide variety of wild game, with venison and squirrel particularly common, thus helping compensate for distance from major cities and transportation networks. As wheat flour and baking powder/baking soda became available in the late 19th century, buttermilk biscuits became popular. Salt was primarily available from Saltville, Virginia, but until black pepper appeared, few other seasonings were used. Women were often herbalists, and used local plants like spicebush in seasoning. Chicory, which can be grown or gathered locally, was historically used as a coffee substitute during times when coffee was not freely available, such as during the American Civil War and the 2nd World War. The two primary sweeteners in Appalachia were sorghum and honey--the sugar cane molasses of the lowland South never was a dominant sweetener.

Today, a breakfast of buttermilk biscuits and sausage gravy is common throughout the region, as well as places Appalachian people have migrated. Pork drippings from frying sausage, bacon, and other types of pan-fried pork are typically collected and used for making gravy and in greasing cast-iron cookware. Chicken and dumplings and fried chicken remain much-loved dishes. Cornbread, corn pone, hominy grits, mush, cornbread pudding and hominy stew are very common foods, as corn is the primary grain grown in the Appalachian hills and mountains. Fruits that tend to be more popular in this area are apple, pears, and berries. Sweetened fried apples remain a common side-dish. Maple syrup and maple sugar are occasionally made in the higher elevations where sugar maple grows. Wild morel mushrooms and ramps (similar to scallions and leeks) are often collected. In Appalachia one may find festivals dedicated to the ramp plant. Home canning is a strong tradition here as well. Dried pinto beans are a major staple food during the winter months, used to make the ubiquitous ham-flavored bean soup usually called soup beans. Canning included green beans (half-runners, snaps) as well as shelly beans (green beans that were more mature and had ripe beans along with the green husks). Kieffer pears and apple varieties are used to make pear butter and apple butter. Also popular are bread and butter pickles, fried mustard greens with vinegar, pickled beets, chow-chow (commonly called "chow") and a relish called corn ketchup. Tomatoes are canned in large numbers, and fried green tomatoes are common. Along with sausage gravy, tomato gravy, a roux thinned with tomatoes, is very popular. A variety of wild fruits like pawpaws, wild blackberries, and persimmons are also commonly available in Appalachia.

Health Effects

A study led by Suzanna Judd, a nutritional epidemiologist at the University of Alabama, found that people who ate Southern food six times per week had about a 41 percent higher risk of stroke, compared with people who just ate Southern food once per month.

External links

"Talk with your mouth full – what is Southern food?" CNN. December 2, 2010.

Southern Barbecue Primer

Southern Foodways Alliance

Southern Food & Beverage Museum

Southern Recipes and Cooking


Tex-Mex cuisine

Cuisine of the Southwestern United States

Cuisine of the United States

Soul food

Source: Internet