The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, currently Denis McDonough. The size of the White House staff has increased dramatically since 1939, and has grown to include an array of policy experts in various fields.
Flag of the Executive Office of the President
HistoryIn 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP, which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council.
Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.
From 1939 through the present, the situation changed dramatically. New units within the EOP were created, some by statute, some by executive order of the president. Among the most important are the Council of Economic Advisers (1946), the National Security Council and its staff (1947), the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (1963), the Council on Environmental Quality (1970), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (1976), the Office of Administration (1977), and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (1989). Under George W. Bush, additional units were added, such as the Office of Homeland Security (2001), which later became a Cabinet department, and the Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives (2001). Precise estimates as to the size and budget of the EOP are difficult to come by. Many people who work on the staff are "detailed" from other federal departments and agencies, and budgetary expenses are often charged elsewhere, for example Defense Department staff for the White House Military Office. Ballpark estimates indicate some 2,000 to 2,500 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).
Since 1995, the President has been required to submit an annual report to Congress listing the name and salary of every White House Office employee. The report for 2011 lists 454 employees, and can be viewed on the White House web site.
OrganizationSenior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.
Very few EOP (Executive Office of the President) officials are required to be confirmed by the Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions to this rule (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative). The core White House Staff appointments do not require Senate approval. The staff of the Executive Office of the President is managed by the White House Chief of Staff.
Executive Office of the PresidentOnly principal executives are listed. For subordinate officers, see individual office pages.
(As of August 26, 2013)
- Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff: Denis McDonough
- Senior Advisor to the President and Assistant to the President for Strategy and Communications: Daniel Pfeiffer
- Counselor to the President: Peter Rouse
- Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers: Jason Furman
- Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality: Nancy Sutley
- Director of the Office of Administration: Beth Jones
- Director of the Office of Management and Budget: Sylvia Mathews Burwell
- Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Gil Kerlikowske
- Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy: Dr. John Holdren
- United States Trade Representative: Michael Froman
- Assistant to the Vice President and Chief of Staff: Bruce Reed
- Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Director of the Domestic Policy Council: Cecilia Muñoz
- Director of the Office of National AIDS Policy: Grant Colifax
- Special Assistant to the President and Executive Director of the White House Office of Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships: Melissa Rogers
- Special Assistant to the President and Director of the Office of Social Innovation and Civic Participation: Jonathan Greenblatt
Office of Cabinet Affairs
- Director of the National Economic Council and Assistant to the President for Economic Policy: Gene Sperling
Office of Communications
- Assistant to the President for Communications and White House Communications Director: Jennifer Palmieri
- White House Press Secretary: Jay Carney
Office of Digital Strategy
- Chief of Staff to the First Lady: Tina Tchen
- Special Assistant to the President and White House Social Secretary: Jeremy Bernard
Office of Legislative Affairs
Oval Office Operations
Office of Presidential Personnel
- Senior Advisor to the President and Assistant to the President for Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs: Valerie Jarrett
Office of Public Engagement
Office of Intergovernmental Affairs
Office of Urban Affairs
Office of Scheduling and Advance
Office of the Staff Secretary
- Assistant to the President and Counsel to the President: Kathryn Ruemmler